Computing Free Energies and Accelerating Rare Events with Metadynamics

  • A. Laio
  • M. Parrinello
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 703)


Computer simulations of complex polyatomic systems are nowadays routinely exploited in chemistry, physics and biophysics for extracting informations about equilibrium properties and predictions of long time behavior. As it is well known, a straightforward simulation by molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo can usually provide only limited information, due to the intrinsic complexity of most of the potential energy functions needed to describe real systems. For example, the folding time of most of the proteins is of the order of seconds, while direct simulation of these systems can access at most the microseconds time scale. For this reason the problem of sampling is of great importance in computational physics. One would like to exploit at best the available computer time in order to extract information about events that might happen on a long time scale (“rare events”) and to predict the most probable state of a system.


Free Energy Rare Event Free Energy Surface Thermodynamic Force Collective Variable 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Laio
    • 1
  • M. Parrinello
    • 2
  1. 1.International School for Advanced Studies – SISSATriesteItaly
  2. 2.Dept. of Chemistry and Applied BiosciencesComputational ScienceLuganoSwitzerland

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