Ultrasound Imaging and Its Modeling

  • Jørgen A. Jensen
Part of the Topics in Applied Physics book series (TAP, volume 84)


Modern medical ultrasound scanners are used to image nearly all soft tissue structures in the body. The anatomy can be studied from gray-scale B-mode images, where the reflectivity and scattering strength of the tissues are displayed. The imaging is performed in real time with 20 to 100 images per second. The technique is widely used, since it does not use ionizing radiation and is safe and painless for the patient. This chapter gives a short introduction to modern ultrasound imaging using array transducers. It includes a description of the different imaging methods, the beam-forming strategies used, and the resulting fields and their modeling.


Impulse Response Ultrasound Image Point Spread Function Spherical Wave Beam Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. A. Goss, R. L. Johnston, F. Dunn, Comprehensive compilation of empirical ultrasonic properties of mammalian tissues, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 423–457 (1978)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. A. Goss, R. L. Johnston, F. Dunn, Compilation of empirical ultrasonic properties of mammalian tissues II. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 68, 93–108 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. J. Haney, W. D. O’Brien. Temperature dependency of ultrasonic propagation properties in biological materials In Tissue Characterization with Ultrasound, ed. by J. F. Greenleaf (CRC, Boca Raton 1986)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. A. Jensen, Estimation of Blood Velocities Using Ultrasound: A Signal Processing Approach (Cambridge University Press, New York 1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. F. Wagner, S. W. Smith, J. M. Sandrick, H. Lopez, Statistics of speckle in ultrasound B-scans, IEEE Trans. Son. Ultrason. 30, 156–163 (1983)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. E. Kinsler, A. R. Frey, A. B. Coppens, J. V. Sanders, Fundamentals of Acoustics (Wiley, New York 1982)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. E. Tupholme, Generation of acoustic pulses by baffled plane pistons. Mathematika 16, 209–224 (1969)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. R. Stepanishen, The time-dependent force and radiation impedance on a piston in a rigid infinite planar baffle, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 841–849 (1971)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. R. Stepanishen, Transient radiation from pistons in an infinte planar baffle, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 1629–1638 (1971)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. D. Pierce, Acoustics, An Introduction to Physical Principles and Applications (Acoust. Soc. Am., New York 1989)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. M. Morse, K. U. Ingard, Theoretical Acoustics (McGraw-Hill, New York 1968)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. R. Stepanishen, Pulsed transmit/receive response of ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 69, 1815–1827 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. A. Jensen, A model for the propagation and scattering of ultrasound in tissue, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 89, 182–191 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. A. Jensen, Field: A program for simulating ultrasound systems, Med. Biol. Eng. Comp. 4Suppl. 1, Part 1, 351–353 (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. A. Jensen, N. B. Svendsen, Calculation of pressure fields from arbitrarily shaped, apodized, and excited ultrasound transducers, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. 39, 262–267 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jørgen A. Jensen
    • 1
  1. 1.Ørsted · DTUTechnical University of DenmarkLyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations