Explosive Volcanic Eruptions
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During explosive volcanic eruptions, up to 1014 kg of volcanic ash may be erupted from a vent forming violent ash flows or towering eruption columns. This massive amount of material is subsequently deposited on the ground, with much of the coarser fraction of the flow being deposited within a few hundred kilometres of the volcanic edifice. This may lead to a substantial regional change to the topography, with ash flow deposits being tens to hundreds of metres deep and air-fall deposits being several metres deep. In addition, the eruption of such a large mass of material from a volcanic edifice may lead to collapse of the crust above the sub-surface magma reservoir. This leads to the formation of calderas which are large depressions in the surface topography, often extending tens of kilometres in diameter and being several hundred metres deep. In summary, explosive volcanic eruptions can produce major changes in surface topography owing to the very powerful transport and redistribution of mass. In this contribution, we aim to develop quantitative models to predict the dynamics and deposition patterns of this erupted material, and where possible we compare this with field data.
KeywordsMagma Reservoir Eruption Column Eruption Rate Runout Distance Turbulent Drag
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