Wigner Solid and Laughlin Liquid of Bose Condensed Charge-Vortex Composites
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A unified many-body approach  is shown to allow for studying the nature of two novel competing phases of Coulomb-interacting electrons in high magnetic fields B with a fractional filling factor v < 1, as e.g. 1/3, of the lowest Landau level (LLL). These condensed phases are the magnetic field-induced 2D Wigner crystal (WC) and the Laughlin liquid respectively, i.e., a lattice-periodic structure of the guiding centers of cyclotron orbits (radius r L) of the electrons and an incompressible quantum liquid (IQL) of Bose condensed charge-vortex composites. The quasi-particles of the Laughlin liquid exhibiting the fractional quantum Hall effect  having been discovered 1982 carry magnetic flux quanta ch/ e and magic fractions e* = ve of the elementary charge e .
KeywordsFractional Quantum Lower Landau Level Fractional Quantum Hall Effect Lower Landau Level Wigner Crystal