Macroporous Thermosets by Chemically Induced Phase Separation

  • Joachim Kiefer
  • James L. Hedrick
  • Jöns G. Hilborn
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 147)


Macroporous polymers are treated in detail in this review, focusing on how to predict phase behavior and to prepare thermosetting materials. The formation of porous polymers is initially classified into methods of gas blowing, emulsion derived and phase separation. In chemically induced phase separation that involves a reactive polymer precursor and a solvent, phase separation is driven by the change in free energy of the system given by changes in enthalpy and entropy. Guidelines based on the components’ molecular structure are given for the prediction and verification of phase behavior and hence the final porous morphology. The influence of the kinetics is followed by processing the two-phase polymer-liquid to give either isolated or co-continuous porosities. Finally the influence of dispersed liquid droplets or voids on polymer thermoset fracture properties is discussed with a closure of the article by a section on the lowering of dielectric constant through void incorporation.


Porous polymer Solubility parameter Phase separation Epoxy Cyanurate Toughness Image analysis Morphology 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Kiefer
    • 1
  • James L. Hedrick
    • 2
  • Jöns G. Hilborn
    • 1
  1. 1.Polymers Laboratory, Department of Material SciencesSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyLausanneSwitzerland
  2. 2.IBM Research DivisionAlmaden Research CenterSan JoseUSA

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