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Environmental Levels and Fate

  • Derek MuirEmail author
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 10)

Abstract

The environmental levels and fate of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are understudied compared to many other chlorinated organics with similar molecular formulas such as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. In this review, the predicted environmental distribution and long range transport (LRT) potential of short, medium, and long chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs and LCCPs) homologs were evaluated using a Level III fugacity based model and the OECD LRT tool. Overall persistence (POV) ranged from 503 to 519 d and soils and sediments were predicted to be the main environmental reservoirs for CPs assuming equal emissions to air, water, and soil. Individual congeners are predicted to have quite different reactivity with hydroxyl radicals and congeners with 1,1-dichloro-substitution and adjacent unsubstituted positions on the n-alkane chains having with having in shorter atmospheric oxidation half-lives. CPs have high potential for accumulation in terrestrial food webs based on their phys–chem properties but there is limited confirmation of this. The geographical coverage of environmental levels and trends information on CPs is limited particularly for East Asia, which is now the region with the largest production of CPs. The current lack of environmental levels and fate information, while not the only knowledge gap in the information available on CPs, is a major factor in the uncertainties of recent risk assessments for these substances by regulatory authorities in Europe, Japan, and Canada.

Keywords

Bioaccumulation Distribution Emission Fate Long chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs) Medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) Persistence Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) 

Abbreviations

α-HCH

Alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane

δ15N

Stable isotope ratio of 15N to 14N

AO t1/2

Atmospheric oxidation half-life

AOPWIN

Atmospheric Oxidation Program for Microsoft Windows (part of EPISuite)

CACI-MS

Chlorine addition chemical ionization mass spectrometry

Congener

A structurally unique molecule that is a member of a group of related compounds

CTD

Characteristic travel distance

EBAP

Environmental bioaccumulation potential

ECNI-MS

Electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry

EPISuiteTM

Estimation programs interface (EPI) suite

EUSES

European

HCB

Hexachlorobenzene

Homolog

Having the same molecular formula

HRMS

High resolution mass spectrometry

KAW

Air–water partition coefficient

KOA

Octanol–air partition coefficient

KOW

Octanol–water partition coefficient

LCCPs

Long chain chlorinated paraffins

Level III

Fugacity model based on the work of Mackay et al. – assumes steady state conditions

LRT

Long range transport

LRTAP

Long range transport atmospheric transport

MCCPs

Medium chain chlorinated paraffins

MS/MS

Tandem-mass spectrometry

OECD

Organization for economic cooperation and development

OH

Hydroxyl radical

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyl

PEC

Predicted environmental concentrations

POV

Overall persistence

QSPR

Quantitative structure property relationship

SCCPs

Short chain chlorinated paraffins

SMILES

Simplified molecular input line entry

SPARC

Sparc performs automated reasoning in chemistry

TE

Transfer efficiency

TMF

Trophic magnification factor

TRI

Toxics release inventory

US EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency

WWTP

Waste water treatment plant

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research DivisionEnvironment CanadaBurlingtonCanada

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