Advertisement

The Human Factor in Biodiversity

Swedish Farmers’ Perspectives on Seminatural Grasslands
  • Marie Stenseke
Chapter

Abstract

Landscape management and planning have become significant factors in post-productive rural areas. Through landscape policies, certain ideas about the fashion of the rural landscape are promoted. Policy-making, explicitly concerning the structures and qualities of the agricultural landscape in Sweden, was first initiated in the 1970s as a response to the ongoing abandonment of agricultural land and the degrading of biological values. Ecology and biodiversity developed as major concepts in the 1980s within rural landscape management, thus the planning of agricultural landscapes is very much the domain of the natural sciences (cf. Luz 2000). Agricultural landscapes, however, are not just a question of species, soils, water and climate, but also of culture, being inhabited by people and with a future dependent on human decisions and human activities. Moreover, landscapes vary as do the local and regional contexts, of which the physical features are integrated parts. With common agricultural and rural policies for a large part of Europe, there is an obvious risk that local and regional characteristics will be harmed by such general policies. Thus, landscape planning cannot only take physical facts as a point of departure, but must also deal with the human factor (Pretty 1998; cf. Van den Berg 2000; Bridgewater 2002). There is hence a need to find ways to integrate people and socio-economic aspects within landscape planning (cf. Fry 2001). That is the aim of this chapter.

Keywords

Agricultural Landscape Western Area Eastern Area Grazing Animal Landscape Management 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Berg, L. van den (2000). Negotiated Multifunctionality of Agriculture at the Global Level: Experiences from an FAO-initiated Scoping Project. In J.T. Pierce, S.D. Prager & R.A. Smith (Eds.), Reshaping of Rural Ecologies, Economies and Communities. Conference proceedings. Commission of the Sustainability of Rural Systems, International Geographical Union (pp. 223–235). Vancouver: Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
  2. Bridgewater, P.B. (2002). Biosphere Reserves: Special Places for People and Nature. Environmental Science and Policy, 5, 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Emanuelsson, U., Berg, Å., Svensson, R. & Pehrson, I. (2001). Management of Seminatural Grasslands — Economy and Biodiversity. Mistra Programme Plan January 2001. Uppsala.Google Scholar
  4. Fry, G. (2001). Multifunctional Landscapes — Towards Transdisciplinary Research. Landscape and Urban Planning, 57, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gimmingham, C.H. (1972). Ecology of Heathlands. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Luz, F. (2000). Participatory Landscape Ecology — A Basis for Acceptance and Implementation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 50, 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Meldon, J. & Skehan, C. (1996). Tourism and the Landscape. Landscape Management by Consensus. Sustainable Tourism in Europe’s Peripheral Regions. Dublin: An Taisce and Bord Fáilte.Google Scholar
  8. Official statistics of agriculture in Sweden. Jordbruksräkningen 1944. Stockholm: SCB.Google Scholar
  9. Official statistics of agriculture in Sweden. Lantbruksräkningen 1992. Örebro: SCB.Google Scholar
  10. Pretty, J. (1998). The Living Land. Agriculture, Food and Community Regeneration in Rural Europe. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  11. Rskr 2001/02:36 Svenska miljömål — delmål och åtgärdsstrategier (Swedish Parliament decision).Google Scholar
  12. SJVFS 2000:132 Statens jordbruksverks föreskrifter om stöd för miljövänligt jordbruk. Jönköping: National Board of Agriculture.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie Stenseke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human and Economic GeographyGöteborg UniversitySweden

Personalised recommendations