Advertisement

Adding Complexity to Phagocytic Signaling: Phagocytosis-Associated Cell Responses and Phagocytic Efficiency

  • Erick García-García
  • Carlos Rosales
Chapter
Part of the Medical Intelligence Unit book series (MIUN)

Abstract

Regulation of the phagocytic process involves complex signaling pathways that lead to particle internalization and destruction. Phagocytosis, however, is not a cellular response occurring as an isolated event. Phagocytic signaling involves the regulation of many phagocytosis-associated cell responses that are important for host defense and for the resolution of the inflammatory process. In addition, due to the destructive nature of the phagocytic process, this cell response is tightly controlled, and phagocytes must respond to activation and differentiation signals that modulate their phagocytic efficiency. Presently it is unclear how all these events are coordinated. Available information, however, suggests a model in which phagocytosis-associated cell responses are regulated through signaling pathways that occur in parallel to, and partially overlap those regulating the ingestion process itself. Additionally, activation and differentiation signals appear to potentiate, or modify the utilization important signaling enzymes that regulate phagocytosis, in order to make this process more efficient.

Keywords

Respiratory Burst Arachidonic Acid Release Leukoc Biol Professional Phagocyte Phagocytic Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rabinovitch M. Professional and nonprofessional phagocytes: An introduction. Trends Cell Biol 1995; 5:85–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jones SL, Lindberg FP, Brown EJ. Phagocytosis. In: Paul WE, ed. Fundamental Immunology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1999:997–1020.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rubartelli A, Poggi A, Zocchi MR. The selective engulfment of apoptotic bodies by dendritic cells is mediated by the alpha(v)beta3 integrin and requires intracellular and extracellular calcium. Eur J Immunol 1997; 27:1893–900.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Albert ML, Pearce SF, Francisco LM et al. Immature dendritic cells phagocytose apoptotic cells via alphavbeta5 and CD36, and cross-present antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1998; 188:1359–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fadok VA, Bratton DL, Rose DM et al. A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells. Nature 2000; 405:85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Witting A, Muller P, Herrmann A et al. Phagocytic clearance of apoptotic neurons by Microglia/Brain macrophages in vitro: Involvement of lectin-, integrin-, and phosphatidylserine-mediated recognition. J Neurochem 2000; 75:1060–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ryeom SW, Sparrow JR, Silverstein RL. CD36 participates in the phagocytosis of rod outer segments by retinal pigment epithelium. J Cell Sci 1996; 109 (Pt 2):387–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Parnaik R, Raff MC, Scholes J. Differences between the clearance of apoptotic cells by professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. Curr Biol 2000; 10:857–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gordon S, Clarke S, Greaves D et al. Molecular immunobiology of macrophages: Recent progress. Curr Op Immunol 1995; 7:24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosenberg H, Gallin J. Inflammation. In: Paul WE, ed. Fundamental Immunology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1999:1051–1066.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Platt N, da Silva RP, Gordon S. Recognizing death: the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Trends Cell Biol 1998; 8:365–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hampton M, Kettle A, Winterbourn C. Inside the neutrophil phagosome: Oxidants, myeloperoxidase and bacterial killing. Blood 1998; 92:3007–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martin E, Ganz T, Lehrer RI. Defensins and other endogenous peptide antibiotics of vertebrates. J Leukoc Biol 1995; 58:128–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lehrer RI, Ganz T. Antimicrobial polypeptides of human neutrophils. Blood 1990; 76:2169–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bodel P, Miller H. Differences in pyrogen production by mononuclear phagocytes and by fibroblasts or HeLa cells. J Exp Med 1977; 145:607–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nielsen OH, Elmgreen J, Thomsen BS et al. Release of leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid during phagocytosis of artificial immune complexes by peripheral neutrophils in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Immunol 1986; 65:465–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brozna JP, Hauff NF, Phillips WA et al. Activation of the respiratory burst in macrophages. Phosphorylation specifically associated with Fc receptor-mediated stimulation. J Immunol 1988; 141:1642–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stein M, Gordon S. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release by murine peritoneal macrophages: role of cell stimulation and specific phagocytic plasma membrane receptors. J Cell Sci 1991; 21:431–7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aderem AA, Wright SD, Silverstein SC et al. Ligated complement receptors do not activate the arachidonic acid cascade in resident peritoneal macrophages. J Exp Med 1985; 161:617–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meagher L, Savill J, Baker A et al. Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils does not induce macrophage release of thromboxane B2. J Leukoc Biol 1992; 52:169–73.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barker R, Erwig L, Pearce W et al. Differential effects of necrotic or apoptotic cell uptake on antigen presentation by macrophages. Pathobiol 1999; 67:302–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Monteiro R, Van De Winkel J. IgA Fc receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 2003; 21:177–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ravetch JV, Bolland S. IgG Fc receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 2001; 19:275–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S’anchez-Mejorada G, Rosales C. Signal transduction by immunoglobulin Fc receptors. J Leukoc Biol 1998; 63:521–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lennartz MR. Phospholipases and phagocytosis: the role of phospholipid-derived second messengers in phagocytosis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1999; 31:415–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berton G, Laudanna C, Sorio C et al. Generation of signals activating neutrophil functions by leukocyte integrins: LFA-1 and gp 150/95, but not CR3, are able to stimulate the respiratory burst of human neutrophils. J Cell Biol 1992; 116:1007–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ehlers MR. CR3: a general purpose adhesion-recognition receptor essential for innate immunity. Microbes Infect 2000; 2:289–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Le Cabec V, Cols C, Maridonneau-Parini I. Nonopsonic phagocytosis of zymosan and Mycobacterium kansasii by CR3 (CD11b/CD18) involves distinct molecular determinants and is or is not coupled with NADPH oxidase activation. Infect Immun 2000; 68:4736–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Caron E, Hall A. Identification of two distinct mechanisms of phagocytosis controlled by different Rho GTPases. Science 1998; 282:1717–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rubel C, Fernandez GC, Rosa FA et al. Soluble fibrinogen modulates neutrophil functionality through the activation of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathway. J Immunol 2002; 168:3527–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vetvicka V, Thornton BP, Ross GD. Soluble beta-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells. J Clin Invest 1996; 98:50–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fadok VA, Bratton DL, Konowal A Trends in Cell Biology. Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF. J Clin Invest 1998; 101:890–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huynh ML, Fadok VA, Henson PM. Phosphatidylserine-dependent ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes TGF-betal secretion and the resolution of inflammation. J Clin Invest 2002; 109:41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Scott RS, McMahon EJ, Pop SM et al. Phagocytosis and clearance of apoptotic cells is mediated by MER. Nature 2001; 411:207–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Behrens EM, Gadue P, Gong SY Trends in Cell Biology. The mer receptor tyrosine kinase: expression and function suggest a role in innate immunity. Eur J Immunol 2003; 33:2160–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Camenisch T, Koller B, Earp H Trends in Cell Biology. A novel receptor tyrosine kinase, MER, inhibits TNF-alpha production and lipopolysacharide-induced endotoxic shock. J Immunol 1999; 162:3498–3503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cohen PL, Caricchio R, Abraham V et al. Delayed apoptotic cell clearance and lupus-like autoimmunity in mice lacking the c-mer membrane tyrosine kinase. J Exp Med 2002; 196:135–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Morelli AE, Larregina AT, Shufesky WJ et al. Internalization of circulating apoptotic cells by splenic marginal zone dendritic cells: dependence on complement receptors and effect on cytokine production. Blood 2003; 101:611–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mevorach D, Mascarenhas JO, Gershov D Trends in Cell Biology. Complement-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells by human macrophages. J Exp Med 1998; 188:2313–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Garcia-Garcia E, Sanchez-Mejorada G, Rosales C. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and ERK are required for NF-κB activation, but not for phagocytosis. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 70:649–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cox D, Tseng CC, Bjekic G et al. A requirement for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in pseudopod extension. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:1240–1247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Garcia-Garcia E, Rosales R, Rosales C. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase are recruited for Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis during monocyte to macrophage differentiation. J Leukoc Biol 2002; 72:107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Breton A, Descoteaux A. Protein kinase C-α participates in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Com 2000; 276:472–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Karimi K, Gemmill TR, Lennartz MR. Protein kinase C and a calcium-independent phospholipase are required for IgG-mediated phagocytosis by Mono-Mac-6 cells. J Leukoc Biol 1999; 65:854–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mansfield PJ, Shayman JA, Boxer LA. Regulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis by myosin light chain kinase after activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Blood 2000; 95:2407–2412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Raeder EM, Mansfield PJ, Hinkovska-Galcheva V et al. Syk activation initiates downstream signaling events during human polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis. J Immunol 1999; 163:6785–6793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Myers JT, Swanson JA. Calcium spikes in activated macrophages during Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. J Leukoc Biol 2002; 72:677–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Edberg JC, Lin CT, Lau D et al. The Ca2+ dependence of human Fc gamma receptor-initiated phagocytosis. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:22301–22307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Yamamori T, Inanami O, Nagahata H et al. Roles of p38MAPK, PKC and PI3-K in the signaling pathways of NADPH oxidase activation and phagocytosis in bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes. FEBS Lett 2000; 467:253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu J, Liu Z, Chuai S et al. Phospholipase C and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling are involved in the exogenous arachidonic acid-stimulated respiratory burst in human neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol 2003; 74:428–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hirsch E, Katanaev VL, Garlanda C et al. Central role for G protein-coupled phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma in inflammation. Science 2000; 287:1049–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Larsen EC, DiGennaro JA, Saito N et al. Differential requirement for classic and novel PKC isoforms in respiratory burst and phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells. J Immunol 2000; 165:2809–2817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Downey GP, Butler JR, Tapper H et al. Importance of MEK in neutrophil microbicidal responsiveness. J Immunol 1998; 160:434–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dewas C, Fay M, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA et al. The mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway is involved in formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced p47phox phosphorylation in human neutrophils. J Immunol 2000; 165:5238–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kreck ML, Freeman JL, Abo A et al. Membrane association of Rac is required for high activity of the respiratory burst oxidase. Biochemistry 1996; 35:15683–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Knaus UG, Heyworth PG, Evans T et al. Regulation of phagocyte oxygen radical production by the GTP-binding protein Rac 2. Science 1991; 254:1512–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Giron-Calle J, Srivatsa K, Forman HJ. Priming of alveolar macrophage respiratory burst by H(2)O(2) is prevented by phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibitor Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthate (D609). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 301:87–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Watson F, Lowe GM, Robinson JJ et al. Phospholipase D-dependent and-independent activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase. Biosci Rep 1994; 14:91–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Aebischer CP, Pasche I, Jorg A. Nanomolar arachidonic acid influences the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils induced by GTP-binding protein. A comparative study of the respiratory burst in bovine eosinophils and neutrophils. Eur J Biochem 1993; 218:669–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bei L, Hu T, Qian ZM et al. Extracellular Ca2+ regulates the respiratory burst of human neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1404:475–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hoyal CR, Gozal E, Zhou H et al. Modulation of the rat alveolar macrophage respiratory burst by hydroperoxides is calcium dependent. Arch Biochem Biophys 1996; 326:166–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ogle JD, Noel JG, Sramkoski RM et al. Effects of chemotactic peptide f-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) on C3b receptor (CR1) expression and phagocytosis of microspheres by human neutrophils. Inflammation 1990; 14:337–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rosales C, Brown EJ. Two mechanisms for IgG Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis by human neutrophils. J Immunol 1991; 146:3937–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ogle JD, Noel JG, Sramkoski RM et al. The effects of cytokines, platelet activating factor, and arachidonate metabolites on C3b receptor (CR1, CD35) expression and phagocytosis by neutrophils. Cytokine 1990; 2:447–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Collins HL, Bancroft GJ. Cytokine enhancement of complement-dependent phagocytosis by macrophages: synergy of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eur J Immunol 1992; 22:1447–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pitrak D. Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on the bactericidal functions of neutrophils. Corr Opin Hematol 1997; 4:183–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Detmers PA, Powell DE, Walz A et al. Differential effects of neutrophil-activating peptide l/IL-8 and its homologues on leukocyte adhesion and phagocytosis. J Immunol 1991; 147:4211–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mitchell GB, Albright BN, Caswell JL. Effect of interleukin-8 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on priming and activation of bovine neutrophils. Infect Immun 2003; 71:1643–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mancuso P, Peters-Golden M. Modulation of alveolar macrophage phagocytosis by leukotrienes is Fc receptor-mediated and protein kinase C-dependent. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2000; 23:727–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Canetti C, Hu B, Curis J et al. Syk activation is a leukotriene B4-regulated event involved in macrophage phagocytosis of IgG-coated targets but not apoptotic cells. Blood 2003; 102:1877–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Arora M, Muñoz E, Tenner A. Identification of a site on mannan-binding lectin crititcal for enhancement of phagocytosis. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:43087–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ohkuro M, Ogura-Masaki M, Kobayashi K et al. Effect of iC3b binding to immune complexes upon the phagocytic response of human neutrophils: synergistic functions between Fc gamma R and CR3. FEBS Lett 1995; 373:189–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schnitzler N, Haase G, Podbielsky A et al. A costimulatory signal through ICAM-beta 2 integrin-binding potentiates neutrophil phagocytosis. Nat Med 1999; 5:231–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rubel C, Fernandez GC, Dran G, Bompadre MB, Isturiz MA, Palermo MS. Fibrinogen promotes neutrophil activation and delays apoptosis. J Immunol 2001; 166:2002–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kiefer F, Brumell J, Al-Alawi N et al. The Syk protein tyrosine kinase is essential for Fcgamma receptor signaling in macrophages and neutrophils. Mol Cell Biol 1998; 18:4209–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chang LC, Wang JP. Examination of the signal transduction pathways leading to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine in rat neutrophils. FEBS Lett 1999; 454:165–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kodama T, Hazeki K, Hazeki O et al. Enhancement of chemotactic peptide-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and its relation to the cytokine-mediated priming of neutrophil superoxide-anion production. Biochem J 1999; 337 (Pt 2):201–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Woo CH, You HJ, Cho SH et al. Leukotriene B(4) stimulates Rac-ERK cascade to generate reactive oxygen species that mediates chemotaxis. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:8572–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ito N, Yokomizo T, Sasaki T et al. Requirement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and calcium influx for leukotriene B4-induced enzyme release. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:44898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Knall C, Worthen GS, Johnson GL. Interleukin 8-stimulated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity regulates the migration of human neutrophils independent of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94:3052–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kuroki M, O’Flaherty JT. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-dependent and ERK-independent pathways target STAT3 on serine-727 in human neutrophils stimulated by chemo-tactic factors and cytokines. Biochem J 1999; 341 (Pt 3):691–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gordon S. Macrophages and the immune response. In: Paul WE, ed. Fundamental Immunology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1999:533–547.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Newman SL, Devery-Pocius JE, Ross GD et al. Phagocytosis by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Independent function of receptors for C3b (CR1) and iC3b (CR3). Complement 1984; 1:213–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Newman SL, Becker S, Halme J. Phagocytosis by receptors for C3b (CR1), iC3b (CR3), and IgG (Fc) on human peritoneal macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 1985; 38:267–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fadok VA, Voelker DR, Campbell PA et al. The ability to recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells is an inducible function in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Chest 1993; 103:102S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Newman SL, Henson JE, Henson PM. Phagocytosis of senescent neutrophils by human monocyte-derived macrophages and rabbit inflammatory macrophages. J Exp Med 1982; 156:430–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Valledor AF, Borras FE, Cullell-Young M et al. Transcription factors that regulate monocyte/macrophage differentiation. J Leukoc Biol 1998; 63:405–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Melendez AJ, Harnett MM, Allen JM. Differentiation-dependent switch in protein kinase C isoenzyme activation by FcγRI, the human high-affinity receptor for Immunoglobulin G. Immunol 1999; 96:457–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Melendez AJ, Harnett MM, Allen JM. FcγRI activation of phospholipase Cγ1 and protein kinase C in dibutyryl cAMP-differentiated U937 cells is dependent solely on the tyrosine-kinase activated form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Immunol 1999; 98:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lennartz MR, Brown EJ. Arachidonic acid is essential for IgG Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by human monocytes. J Immunol 1991; 147:621–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lennartz MR, Yuen AFC, McKenzie Masi S et al. Phospholipase A2 inhibition results in sequestration of plasma membrane into electronlucent vesicles during IgG-mediated phagocytosis. J Cell Sci 1997; 110:2041–2052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Karimi K, Lennartz MR. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated during IgG-mediated phagocytosis, but it is not required for target ingestion. Inflammation 1998; 22:67–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Karimi K, Lennartz MR. Protein kinase C activation precedes arachidonic acid release during IgG-mediated phagocytosis. J Immunol 1995; 155:5786–5794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hazan-Halevy I, Seger R, Levy R. The requirement of both extracellular regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase for stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity by either FcγRIIA or FcγRIIIB in human neutrophils: A possible role of Pyk2 but not for the Grb-2-Sos-Shc complex. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:12416–12423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Gijó MA, Spencer DM, Siddiqi AR et al. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is required for macrophage arachidonic acid release by agonists that do and do not mobilize calcium: Novel role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in cytosolic phosholipase A2 regulation. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:20146–20156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Akiba S, Mizunaga S, Kume K et al. Involvement of group VI Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 in protein kinase C-dependent arachidonic acid liberation in zymosan-stimulated macrophage-like P388D1 cells. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:19906–19912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Eurekah.com and Springer Science+Business Media 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erick García-García
    • 1
  • Carlos Rosales
    • 2
  1. 1.Immunology Department Instituto de Investigaciones BiomédicasUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéexicoMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Universidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations