Advertisement

Phospholipases and Phagocytosis

  • Michelle R. Lennartz
Chapter
  • 699 Downloads
Part of the Medical Intelligence Unit book series (MIUN)

Keywords

NADPH Oxidase Phosphatidic Acid Respiratory Burst Membrane Raft Cytosolic Phospholipase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL et al. Dectin-1 mediates the biological effects of beta-glucans. J Exp Med 2003; 197(9):1119–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krieger M, Herz J. Structure and functions of multiligand lipoprotein receptors: Macrophage scavenger receptors and LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). Annu Rev Biochem 1994; 63:601–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gordon S. Pattern recognition receptors: Doubling up for the innate immune response. Cell 2002; 111(7):927–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen L, Aderem A. Molecular definition of distinct cytoskeletal structures involved in complement-and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. J Exp Med 1996; 184:627–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vieira OV, Botelho RJ, Grinstein S. Phagosome maturation: Aging gracefully. Biochem J 2002; 366 (Pt 3):689–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scott CC, Botelho RJ, Grinstein S. Phagosome maturation: A few bugs in the system. J Membr Biol 2003; 193(3):137–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amer AO, Swanson MS. A phagosome of one’s own: A microbial guide to life in the macrophage. Curr Opin Microbiol 2002; 5(1):56–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hackstadt T. The diverse habitats of obligate intracellular parasites. Curr Opin Microbiol 1998; 1(1):82–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Underhill DM, Ozinsky A. Phagocytosis of microbes: Complexity in action. Annu Rev Immunol 2002; 20:825–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kwiatkowska K, Sobota A. Signaling pathways in phagocytosis. Bio Essays 1999; 21:422–431.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Garcia-Garcia E, Rosales C. Signal transduction during Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. J Leukoc Biol 2002; 72(6):1092–1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Greenberg S. Modular components of phagocytosis. J Leukoc Biol 1999; 66(5):712–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cox D, Berg JS, Cammer M et al. Myosin X is a downstream effector of PI(3)K during phagocytosis. Nat Cell Biol 2002; 4(7):469–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fukami K. Structure, regulation, and function of phospholipase C isozymes. J Biochem (Tokyo) Mar 2002; 131(3):293–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li Z, Jiang H, Xie W et al. Roles of PLC-beta2 and-beta3 and PI3Kgamma in chemoattractant-mediated signal transduction. Science 2000; 287(5455):1046–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wen R, Jou ST, Chen Y et al. Phospholipase C gamma 2 is essential for specific functions of Fc epsilon R and Fc gamma R. J Immunol 2002; 169(12):6743–6767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kusner DJ, Barton JA, Wen KK et al. Regulation of phospholipase D activity by actin. Actin exerts bidirectional modulation of Mammalian phospholipase D activity in a polymerization-dependent, isoform-specific manner. J Biol Chem 2002; 277(52):50683–50692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Botelho RJ, Teruel M, Dierckman R et al. Localized biphasic changes in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate at sites of phagocytosis. J Cell Biol 2000; 151(7):1353–1368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rhee SG, Bae YS. Regulation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isozymes. J Biol Chem 1997; 272(24):15045–15048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zheng L, Nibbering PH, van Furth R. Stimulation of the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes mediated by Fcγ receptors I and II. Eur J Immunol 1993; 23:2826–2833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zheng L, Nibbering PH, Zomerdijk TPL et al. Protein tyrosine kinase activity is essential for Fcγ receptor-mediated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes. Infect Immun 1994; 62:4296–4303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dusi S, Donini M, Bianca VD et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-γ2 is involved in the activation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by Fc receptors in human neutrophils. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1994; 201:1100–1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lennartz MR, Lefkowith JB, Bromley FA et al. IgG-mediated phagocytosis activates a calcium-independent, phosphatidylethanolamine specific phospholipase. J Leuko Biol 1993; 54:389–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Delia Bianca V, Grzeskowiak M, Rossi F. Studies on molecular regulation of phagocytosis and activation of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils. J Immunol 1990; 144:1411–1417.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Larsen EC, DiGennaro JA, Saito N et al. Differential requirement for classic and novel PKC isoforms in respiratory burst and phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells. J Immunol 2000; 165:2809–2817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kimura T, Kihara H, Bhattacharyya S et al. Downstream signaling molecules bind to different phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) peptides of the high affinity IgE receptor. J Biol Chem 1996; 271(44):27962–27968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ibarrola I, Vossebeld PJ, Homburg CH et al. Influence of tyrosine phosphorylation on protein interaction with FcgammaRIIa. Biochim Biophys Acta 1997; 1357(3):348–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rameh LE, Rhee SG, Spokes K et al. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates phospholipase C-gamma-mediated calcium signaling. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(37):23750–23757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Newton AC. Regulation of protein kinase C. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997; 9:161–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Loegering DJ, Lennartz MR. Signaling pathways for Fcγ receptor-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-secretion and respiratory burst in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Inflammation 2004; 28:23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Korchak HM, Rossi MW, Kilpatrick LE. Selective role for beta-protein kinase C in signaling for O-2 generation but not degranulation or adherence in differentiated HL60 cells. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(42):27292–27299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Allen L-AH, Aderem A. A role for MARCKS, the α isozyme of protein kinase C and myosin I in zymosan phagocytosis by macrophages. J Exp Med 1995; 182:829–840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reeves EP, Dekker LV, Forbes LV et al. Direct interaction between p47phox and protein kinase C: Evidence for targeting of protein kinase C by p47phox in neutrophils [published erratum appears in Biochem J 2000; 345(Pt 3):767]. Biochem J 1999; 344 (Pt 3):859–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Babior BM, Lambeth JD, Nauseef W. The neutrophil NADPH oxidase. Arch Biochem Biophys 2002; 397(2):342–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DeLeo FR, Allen LA, Apicella M et al. NADPH oxidase activation and assembly during phagocytosis. J Immunol 1999; 163(12):6732–6740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zheleznyak A, Brown EJ. Immunoglubulin-mediated phagocytosis by human monocytes requires protein kinase C activation. J Biol Chem 1992; 267:12042–12048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Larsen EC, Ueyama T, Brannock PM et al. A role for PKC-varepsilon in FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 cells. J Cell Biol 2002; 159(6):939–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Banno Y. Regulation and possible role of mammalian phospholipase D in cellular functions. J Biochem (Tokyo) 2002; 131(3):301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brindley DN, English D, Pilquil C et al. Lipid phosphate phosphatases regulate signal transduction through glycerolipids and sphingolipids. Biochim Biophys Acta 2002; 1582(1–3):33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Exton JH. Phospholipase D: Enzymology, mechanisms of regulation, and function. Physiol Rev 1997; 77(2):303–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fallman M, Lew DP, Stendahl O et al. Receptor-mediated phagocytosis in human neutrophils is associated with increased formation of inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol. Elevation in cytosolic free calcium and formation of inositol phosphates can be dissociated from accumulation of diacylglycerol. J Clin Invest 1989; 84(3):886–891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fallman M, Andersson R, Andersson T. Signaling properties of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and (CD35) in relation to phagocytosis of complement-opsonized particles. J Immunol 1993; 151:330–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sciorra VA, Morris AJ. Sequential actions of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 2b generate diglyceride in mammalian cells. Mol Biol Cell 1999; 10(11):3863–3876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kusner DJ, Hall CF, Schlesinger LS. Activation of phospholipase D is tightly coupled to the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or opsonized zymosan by human macrophages. J Exp Med 1996; 184(2):585–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kusner DJ, Hall CF, Jackson S. Fcgamma receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase D regulates macrophage phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles. J Immunol 1999; 162(4):2266–2274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Anes E, Kuhnel MP, Bos E et al. Selected lipids activate phagosome actin assembly and maturation resulting in killing of pathogenic mycobacteria. Nat Cell Biol 2003; 5(9):793–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhang Q, Cox D, Tseng CC et al. A requirement for ARF6 in fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(32):19977–19981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O’Luanaigh N, Pardo R, Fensome A et al. Continual production of phosphatidic acid by phospholipase D is essential for antigen-stimulated membrane ruffling in cultured mast cells. Mol Biol Cell 2002; 13(10):3730–3746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Choi WS, Kim YM, Combs C et al. Phospholipases D1 and D2 regulate different phases of exocytosis in mast cells. J Immunol 2002; 168(11):5682–5689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Di Virgilio F, Meyer CB, Greenberg S et al. Fc Receptor-mediated phagocytosis occurs in macrophages at exceedingly low cytosolic Ca+2 levels. J Cell Biol 1988; 106:657–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lennartz MR, Yuen AFC, McKenzie Massi S et al. Phospholipase A2 inhibition results in sequestration of plasma membrane into electron lucent vesicles druing IgG-mediated phagocytosis. J Cell Sci 1997; 110:2041–2052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lennartz MR. Phospholipases and phagocytosis: The role of phospholipid-derived second messengers in phagocytosis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1999; 31(3–4):415–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cox D, Tseng CC, Bjekic G et al. A requirement for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in pseudopod extension. J Biol Chem 1999; 274(3):1240–1247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bajno L, Peng XR, Schreiber AD et al. Focal exocytosis of VAMP3-containing vesicles at sites of phagosome formation. J Cell Biol 2000; 149(3):697–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Katsumata O, Hara-Yokoyama M, Sautes-Fridman C et al. Association of Fc-gammaRII with low-density detergent-resistant membranes is important for cross-linking-dependent initiation of the tyrosine phosphorylation pathway and superoxide generation. J Immunol 2001; 167(10):5814–5823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Castrillo A, Pennington DJ, Otto F et al. Protein kinase C-epsilon is required for macrophage activation and defense against bacterial infection. J Exp Med 2001; 194(9):1231–1242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shirai Y, Kashiwagi K, Sakai N et al. Phospholipase A(2) and its products are involved in the purinergic receptor-mediated translocation of protein kinase C in CHO-K1 cells. J Cell Sci 2000; 113 (Pt 8):1335–1343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Prekeris R, Mayhew MW, Cooper JB et al. Identification and localization of an actin-binding motif that is unique to the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C and participates in the regulation of synaptic function. J Cell Biol 1996; 132:77–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Prekeris R, Hernandez RM, Mayhew MW et al. Molecular analysis of the interactions between protein kinase C-epsilon and filamentous actin. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(41):26790–26798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Balsinde J, Winstead MV, Dennis EA. Phospholipase A(2) regulation of arachidonic acid mobilization. FEBS Lett Oct 30 2002; 531(1):2–6.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Murakami M, Kudo I. Phospholipase A2. J Biochem (Tokyo) 2002; 131(3):285–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lennartz MR, Brown EJ. Arachidonic acid is essential for IgG Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by human monocytes. J Immunol 1991; 147:621–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brown WJ, Chambers K, Doody A. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in membrane trafficking: Mediators of membrane shape and function. Traffic 2003; 4(4):214–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mayorga LS, Colombo MI, Lennartz MR et al. A phospholipase A2 is necessary for endosome fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1993; 90:10255–10259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bette-Bobillo P, Vidal M. Characterization of phospholipase A2 activity in reticulocyte endocytic vesicles. FEBS Lett 1995; 228:199–205.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ropert C, Almeida IC, Closel M et al. Requirement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and I kappa B phosphorylation for induction of proinflammatory cytokines synthesis by macrophages indicates functional similarity of receptors triggered by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors from parasitic protozoa and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 2001; 166(5):3423–3431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Takuma T, Ichida T. Role of Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 in exocytosis of amylase from parotid acinar cells. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1997; 121(6):1018–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Blackwood RA, Transue AT, Harsh DM et al. PLA2 promotes fusion between PMN-specific granules and complex liposomes. J Leuk Biol 1996; 59:663–670.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nishio H, Takeuchi T, Hata F et al. Ca(2+)-independent fusion of synaptic vesicles with phospholipase A2-treated presynaptic membranes in vitro. Biochem J 1996; 318 (Pt 3):981–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Karimi K, Lennartz MR. Protein kinase C activation precedes arachidonic acid release during IgG-mediated phagocytosis. J Immunol 1995; 155:5786–5794.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Portilla D, Dai G. Purification of a novel calcium-independent phospholipase A2 from rabbit kidney. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:15451–15457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Akiba S, Mizunaga S, Kume K et al. Involvement of group VI Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 in protein kinase C-dependent arachidonic acid liberation in zymosan-stimulated macrophage-like P388D1 cells. J Biol Chem 1999; 274(28):19906–19912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Balboa MA, Saez Y, Balsinde J. Calcium-independent phospholipase a(2) is required for lysozyme secretion in U937 promonocytes. J Immunol 2003; 170(10):5276–5280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Balboa MA, Shirai Y, Gaietta G et al. Localization of group V phospholipase A2 in caveolin-enriched granules in activated P388D1 macrophage-like cells. J Biol Chem 2003.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gijon MA, Spencer DM, Siddiqi AR et al. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is required for macrophage arachidonic acid release by agonists that do and do not mobilize calcium. Novel role of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in cytosolic phospholipase A2 regulation. J Biol Chem 2000; 275(26):20146–20156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gijon MA, Leslie CC. Regulation of arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation. J Leukoc Biol 1999; 65(3):330–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hazan I, Dana R, Granot Y et al. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 and its mode of activation in human neutrophils by opsonized zymosan. Correlation between 42/44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase, cytosolic phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase. Biochem J 1997; 326 (Pt 3):867–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Henderson LM, Chappel JB. NADPH oxidase of neutrophils. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996; 1273(2):87–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Henderson LM, Chappell JB, Jones OT. Superoxide generation is inhibited by phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Role for phospholipase A2 in the activation of the NADPH oxidase. Biochem J 1989; 264(1):249–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dana R, Malech HL, Levy R. The requirement for phospholipase A 2 for activation of the assembled NADPH oxidase in human neutrophils. Biochem J 1994; 297:217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dana R, Leto TL, Malech HL et al. Levy R. Essential requirement of cytosolic phospholipase A2 for activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. J Biol Chem 1998; 273(1):441–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shmelzer Z, Haddad N, Admon E et al. Unique targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A2 to plasma membranes mediated by the NADPH oxidase in phagocytes. J Cell Biol 2003; 162(4):683–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lowenthal A, Levy R. Essential requirement of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) for activation of the H(+) channel in phagocyte-like cells. J Biol Chem 1999; 274(31):21603–21608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Levy R, Lowenthal A, Dana R. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is required for the activation of the NADPH oxidase associated H+ channel in phagocyte-like cells. Adv Exp Med Biol 2000; 479:125–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kim D, Clapham DE. Potassium channels in cardiac cells activated by arachidonic acid and phospholipids. Science 1989; 244:1174–1176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ordway RW, Walsh Jr JV, JJ S. Arachidonic acid and other fatty acids directly activate potassium channels in smooth muscle cells. Science 1989; 244:1176–1179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gijon MA, Spencer DM, Kaiser AL et al. Leslie CC. Role of phosphorylation sites and the C2 domain in regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2. J Cell Biol 1999; 145(6):1219–1232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Aderem AA, Cohen DS, Wright SD et al. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides prime macrophages for enhanced release of arachidonic acid metabolites. J Exp Med 1986; 164:165–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Karimi K, Lennartz MR. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is activated during IgG-mediated phagocytosis but is not required for target ingestion. Inflammation 1998; 22:67–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schillace RV, Scott JD. Organization of kinases, phosphatases, and receptor signaling complexes. J Clin Invest 1999; 103(6):761–765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Seger R, Krebs EG. The MAPK signaling cascade. FASEB J 1995; 9:726–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Morito T, Oishi K, Yamamoto M et al. Biphasic regulation of Fc-receptor mediated phagocytosis of rabbit alveolar macrophages by surfactant phospholipids. Tohoku J Exp Med 2000; 190(1):15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Beningo KA, Wang YL. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target. J Cell Sci 2002; 115 (Pt 4):849–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ridley AJ, Hall A. The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth factors. Cell 1992; 70:389–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Caron E, Hall A. Identification of two distinct mechanisms of phagocytosis controlled by different Rho GTPases. Science 1998; 282(5394):1717–1721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lee DJ, Cox D, Li J et al. Racl and Cdc42 are required for phagocytosis, but not NF-kappa-B-dependent gene expression, in macrophages challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Biol Chem 2000; 275(1):141–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Goni FM, Alonso A. Sphingomyelinases: Enzymology and membrane activity. FEBS Lett 2002; 531(1):38–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Venkataraman K, Futerman AH. Ceramide as a second messenger: Sticky solutions to sticky problems. Trends Cell Biol 2000; 10(10):408–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bourbon NA, Yun J, Kester M. Ceramide directly activates protein kinase C zeta to regulate a stress-activated protein kinase signaling complex. J Biol Chem 2000; 275(45):35617–35623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bourbon NA, Yun J, Berkey D et al. Inhibitory actions of ceramide upon PKC-epsilon/ERK interactions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2001; 280(6):C1403–1411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hinkovska-Galcheva V, Boxer L, Mansfield PJ et al. Enhanced phagocytosis through inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis. J Biol Chem 2003; 278(2):974–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Breton A, Descoteaux A. Protein kinase C-alpha participates in FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 276(2):472–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Allen LA, Allgood JA. Atypical protein kinase C-zeta is essential for delayed phagocytosis of Helicobacter pylori. Curr Biol 2002; 12(20):1762–1766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Suchard SJ, Mansfield PJ, Boxer LA et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation during IgG-dependent phagocytosis in human neutrophils. J Immunol 1997; 158:4961–4967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mansfield PJ, Carey SS, Hinkovska-Galcheva V et al. Ceramide inhibition of phospholipase D and its relationship to RhoA and ARF1 translocation in GTP|gamma|S-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Blood 2003.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Suchard SJ, Hinkovska-Galcheva V, Mansfield PJ et al. Ceramide inhibits IgG-dependent phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Blood 1997; 89(6):2139–2147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Serrander L, Fallman M, Stendahl O. Activation of phospholipase D is an early event in integrin-mediated signalling leading to phagocytosis in human neutrophils. Inflamm 1996; 20(4):439–450.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lin L-L, Wartmann M, Lin AY et al. cPLA2 is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase. Cell 1993; 72:269–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Cacace A, Ueffing M, Philipp A et al. PKC epsilon functions as an oncogene by enhancing activation of the Raf kinase. Oncogene 1996; 13:2517–2526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Banno Y, Takuwa Y, Yamada M et al. Involvement of phospholipase D in insulin-like growth factor-I-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, but not phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt, in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biochem J 2003; 369 (Pt 2):363–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jayadev S, Hayter HL, Andrieu N et al. Phospholipase A2 is necessary for tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced ceramide generation in L929 cells. J Biol Chem 1997; 272(27):17196–17203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Baumruker T, Prieschl EE. Sphingolipids and the regulation of the immune response. Semin Immunol 2002; 14(1):57–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kwiatkowska K, Frey J, Sobota A. Phosphorylation of FcgammaRIIA is required for the receptor-induced actin rearrangement and capping: The role of membrane rafts. J Cell Sci 2003; 116 (Pt 3):537–550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Grazide S, Maestre N, Veldman RJ et al. Ara-C-and daunorubicin-induced recruitment of Lyn in sphingomyelinase-enriched membrane rafts. FASEB J 2002; 16(12):1685–1687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Simonsen A, Wurmser AE, Emr SD et al. The role of phosphoinositides in membrane transport. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2001; 13(4):485–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Greenberg S, Grinstein S. Phagocytosis and innate immunity. Curr Opin Immunol 2002; 14(1):136–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Defacque H, Bos E, Garvalov B et al. Phosphoinositides regulate membrane-dependent actin assembly by latex bead phagosomes. Mol Biol Cell 2002; 13(4):1190–1202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Botelho RJ, Scott CC, Grinstein S. Phosphoinositide involvement in phagocytosis and phagosome maturation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2004; 282:1–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Brumell JH, Grinstein S. Role of lipid-mediated signal transduction in bacterial internalization. Cell Microbiol 2003; 5(5):287–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Palicz A, Foubert TR, Jesaitis AJ et al. Phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol directly activate NADPH oxidase by interacting with enzyme components. J Biol Chem 2000; 276:3090–3097.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Eurekah.com and Springer Science+Business Media 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle R. Lennartz
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Cell Biology and Cancer ResearchAlbany Medical CollegeAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations