The differences between quantum information and classical information are due to the difference of a qubit in a quantum-physical system capable of storing it from a bit in a classical-physical system capable of storing it.1 This difference arises primarily from the superposition principle of quantum mechanics; despite its being bivalent in the chosen computational basis, a qubit system can be in one of an infinite number of significant states, whereas a bit is capable of being in only one of two significant states.2 A qubit system in general also must be considered as at the same time potentially being in one measurable state and/or the other opposite state rather than actually being in just one of the two available states as must necessarily be the case for a bit encoded in a classical physical system. Furthermore, unlike a classical state, a single unknown qubit-system state cannot generally be found by a single measurement. Rather, an ensemble of systems must be measured to discover their unknown shared quantum state.3 It is the nature of quantum potentiality that alternative possibilities for reaching a given quantum state at a given moment superpose, and so are capable of interfering with each other.
Quantum State Pure State Stokes Parameter Quantum Gate Qubit State
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