In addition to having a conceptual understanding of the entanglement and other essential properties of quantum states, it is important to understand how states and essential functionals thereof can be empirically determined, particularly in a way that can be connected with formal results of the sort described in previous chapters. As mentioned at the outset, the state of a given quantum system cannot generally be discovered by simply measuring it once. For an unknown state, at least an ensemble must be measured for one to come to know an unknown state of a given quantum system. Quantum tomography is a general method for estimating ensemble averages for operators and states based on a complete set of quantum measurements.
KeywordsQuantum State Quantum System Quantum Channel Unknown State Stokes Parameter
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