Organization and Functions of the Brain
- 585 Downloads
This chapter gives an overview of the brain organization and functions performed by different parts of the brain. We will try to answer the following questions: How is the human brain organized at the macroscopic and microscopic levels? Which functions are performed by the brain? How is the organization of the human brain related to its functions? These and many more other questions about the brain are still under investigation of thousands of neuroscientists allover the world. The first Nobel Prize for pioneering discoveries related to the brain microscopic organization was given to the Spanish scientist Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) and Italian Camillo Golgi (1843–1926). These scientists are considered to be the founders of neuroscience and modem brain study. German physicist Herman Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821–1894) is the founder of psychophysics, that is a quantitative experimental and theoretical research of relations between mental and brain functions. Up to these days, the division of cerebral cortex based on its microstructure introduced by a neuroanatomist Korbinian Brodmann (1868–1918), is being used. Frenchman Paul Broca (1824–1880) and Russian Alexander Romanovich Luriya (1902–1977) pioneered research on brain localization of cognitive functions based upon cognitive deficits caused by brain lesions.
KeywordsPositron Emission Tomography Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Mirror Neuron Posterior Parietal Cortex Neural Representation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.