Europa’s Ice Next . . .
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ADEEP, LIQUID-WATER ocean lies just below the surface of Europa, so the external appearance has been continually renewed by shifting, melting, and refreezing of the ice. The surface is so young that, unlike our Moon, there are few craters. In fact the lack of craters means that the surface must have been entirely replaced during the past 50m years, which is only about 1% of the age of the solar system. At this rate, Europa’s surface has been replaced almost twice-over in just the time since dinosaurs became extinct on Earth.
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