Europa’s Ice Next . . .

Exploring Jupiter’s Icy Moons
  • Richard Greenberg
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


ADEEP, LIQUID-WATER ocean lies just below the surface of Europa, so the external appearance has been continually renewed by shifting, melting, and refreezing of the ice. The surface is so young that, unlike our Moon, there are few craters. In fact the lack of craters means that the surface must have been entirely replaced during the past 50m years, which is only about 1% of the age of the solar system. At this rate, Europa’s surface has been replaced almost twice-over in just the time since dinosaurs became extinct on Earth.


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Further reading

  1. Anderson, J.D., et al. (2005) Amalthea’s density is less than that of water, Science 308, 1291–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Greenberg, R. (1989) Time-varying orbits and tidal heating of the Galilean satellites. In Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System (Belton, West, and Rahe, eds.), NASA Special Publication 494.Google Scholar
  3. Greenberg, R. (2005) Europa, the Ocean Moon, Springer-Praxis, NY.Google Scholar
  4. Hoppa, G.V., et al. (1999) Formation of cycloidal features on Europa. Science 285, 1899–1902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kivelson, M.G., et al. (2000) Galileo magnetometer measurements: A stronger case for a subsurface ocean at Europa, Science 289, 1340–1343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagenal, F., et al., eds. (2004) Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press. See chapters on “The origin of Jupiter”, “Callisto”, “Geology of Ganymede”, “Interior composition, structure, and dynamics of the galilean satellites”.Google Scholar
  7. Squyres, S.W., et al. (1983), Liquid water and active resurfacing on Europa, Nature, 301, 225–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Praxis Publishing Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Greenberg

There are no affiliations available

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