• R. Venkata RaoEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing book series (SSAM)


Manufacturing is the backbone of any industrialized nation. Its importance is emphasized by the fact that, as an economic activity, it comprises approximately 20–30% of the value of all goods and services produced. A country’s level of manufacturing activity is directly related to its economic health. In general, the higher the level of manufacturing activity in a country, the higher the standard of living of its people.


Particle Swarm Optimization Taguchi Method Gray Relational Analysis Harmony Search Gray Relational Grade 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentS.V. National Institute of TechnologySuratIndia

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