Agents of Change
- 801 Downloads
In August 1922, Dr. William Stewart Halsted returned to Baltimore from his summer retreat (High Hampton, North Carolina) with symptoms of choledocholithiasis. He had had his gallbladder successfully removed at Johns Hopkins Hospital in August 1919 and had remained symptom free until this occasion. However, despite a successful reoperation and attentive care by his colleagues he developed pneumonia and pleurisy of which he died on Thursday, 7 September 1922.
KeywordsLaparoscopic Cholecystectomy National Health Service Minimally Invasive Surgery Surgical Trainee General Medical Council
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). National healthcare quality report. Journal. From: http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr09.htm. 2009 (accessed 19th September 2010).
- APA. NCME (American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education). Standards for educational and psychological tests; Washington DC: AERA Publications Sales; 1999.Google Scholar
- Brazier M. Medicine, Patients and the Law. Harmondsworth: Penguin-Printed Resource; 1992.Google Scholar
- Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry. Learning from Bristol: The Report of the Public Inquiry into Children’s Heart Surgery at the Bristol Royal Infirmary 1984–1995. London: Stationery Office; 2001.Google Scholar
- Cooper JB, Taqueti VR. A brief history of the development of mannequin simulators for clinical education and training. Br Med J. 2004;13(suppl 1):i11-i18.Google Scholar
- Daan S, Beersma DG, Borbely AA. Timing of human sleep: recovery process gated by a circadian pacemaker. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 1984;246(2):R161-R183.Google Scholar
- Davies M. Medical Self-Regulation: Crisis and Change. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Company; 2007.Google Scholar
- Dembe AE, Erickson JB, Delbos RG, Banks SM. The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States. Br Med J. 2005;62(9):588-597.Google Scholar
- Forster P. Queensland Health Systems Review Final Report. Queensland: Queensland Department of Health; 2005 http://www.health.qld.gov.au/health_sys_review/final/qhsr_final_report.pdf (accessed 5th July 2011).
- Gaba DM. Dynamic decision-making in anesthesiology: cognitive models and training approaches. In: Evans DA, Patel VL, eds. Advanced Models of Cognition for Medical Training and Practice. Berlin: Springer; 1992:123-147.Google Scholar
- Gladwell M. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. Boston: Little, Brown & Company; 2000.Google Scholar
- Hallenbeck WH. Radiation Protection. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1994.Google Scholar
- Harding Clark M. The Lourdes Hospital Inquiry–An Inquiry into peripartum hysterectomy at Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Drogheda. Report of Judge Maureen Harding Clark SC. The Stationery Office, Dublin; 2006.Google Scholar
- Harpwood V. Negligence in Healthcare: Clinical Claims and Risk in Context. London: Informa; 2001.Google Scholar
- Haug M. Deprofessionalization: an alternative hypothesis for the future. Sociol Rev Monogr. 1973;20:195-211.Google Scholar
- Health Committee. Working for patients. Vol. 159 cc556-9W. 1989. From: http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1989/nov/07/working-for-patients. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2000:196-197.Google Scholar
- Kuhn TS. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. International Encyclopaedia of United Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1962.Google Scholar
- McKee M, Healy J. Hospitals in a Changing Europe. Buckingham: Open University Press; 2002.Google Scholar
- Meumann E. Haus-und Schularbeit: Experimente an Kindern der Volkschule. [Home and schoolwork: experiments on children in school]. Die Deutsche Schule. 1904;8:278-303; 337-359; 416-431.Google Scholar
- Moore-Ede M. Twenty-Four-Hour Society: Understanding Human Limits in a World That Never Stops. Reading: Addison Wesley Publishing Company; 1993.Google Scholar
- NIH. The NIH almanac – appropriations. May 14, 2010. From: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/appropriations/index.htm. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- Oxford English Dictionary (ed) (Vol. 24) Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
- Pais A. Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
- Patkin M, Isabel L. Ergonomics and Laparoscopic General Surgery. Laparoscopic Abdominal Surgery. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1993.Google Scholar
- Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force (QuIC). Doing what counts for patient safety: federal actions to reduce medical errors and their impact. Journal. From: http://www.quic.gov/report/mederr2.htm. 2000 (accessed 19th September 2010).
- Salter B. The Politics of Change in the Health Service. Basingstoke: Macmillan; 1998.Google Scholar
- Slack PS, Ma X. Time dependency assessment of muscular fatigue index and hand tremor under operating conditions. IEEE. 2007:4822-4825.Google Scholar
- Smith C, Wise MN. Energy and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1989.Google Scholar
- Van Der Weyden MB. The Bundaberg Hospital scandal: the need for reform in Queensland and beyond. Med J Aust. 2005;183(6):284-285.Google Scholar
- Wachter RM. The end of the beginning: patient safety five years after’to err is human’. Journal, W4-534-545. From: http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/hlthaff.w4.534v1. 2004.