Recent Developments in the use of Liposomes in in vitro Diagnostic Assays
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Phospholipids can be dispersed in aqueous media to yield closed vesicles that are composed of one or a series of compartments separated by concentric lipid bilayers (Bangham et al., 1965). These vesicles, or liposomes, were originally studied as models for biological membranes. Liposomes can carry molecules on their exterior surface or in their bilayer lipid membrane. In addition, liposomes can entrap aqueous solutions containing various water-soluble components of a wide range of molecular masses. Liposomes may be formed from natural molecules which can be metabolized in the body, thus having an advantage as carrier vesicles in vivo. Liposomes have been studied as carriers of different solutes; e.g. antibiotics (Gabizon et al., 1982), anti-tumour drugs (Juliano and Lopez-Berestein, 1985; Kirby and Gregoriadis, 1983), cytotoxic agents (Heath et al., 1983), immunomodulators (Fogler et al., 1983), enzymes (Gregoriadis et al., 1971), proteins (Gregoriadis and Allison, 1974) or nucleic acids (Fraley et al., 1980). As drug carriers, liposomes have been shown to improve therapeutic benefits by reducing the toxicity, but not the potency, of drugs (Gabizon et al., 1982; Juliano and Lopez-Berestein, 1985). Antibody-bearing liposomes were also shown to increase the specific toxicity of a cytotoxic agent (Heath et al., 1983). The potential role of liposomes as drug carriers has attracted considerable interest and has been discussed extensively in several reviews (Gregoriadis, 1981; Kaye, 1981; Kimelberg and Mayhew, 1978; Tyrell et al., 1976). The ability of liposomes to carry antigens or antibodies on their surface and to entrap reporter molecules in their aqueous compartment make them potentially useful in in vitro diagnostics. In this review, we will describe the recent developments in the use of liposomes in immunoassays.
KeywordsLiposome Preparation Reporter Molecule Multilamellar Liposome Enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase Systemic Lupus Erythromatosis
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