31P and 23Na NMR Spectroscopy Studies on the Calcium Paradox
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Contractions of an isolated heart rapidly cease when calcium ions (Ca2+) are removed from the extracellular fluid (Ringer, 1883). Twenty-five years ago it was reported that Ca2+ repletion does not result in recovery of contraction of the heart, but in irreversible cell damage: the calcium paradox (Zimmerman and Hulsmann, 1966). Important features of the calcium paradox are disruption of the cell membrane (Post et al., 1985), accumulation of large amounts of Ca2+ by the cells (Alto and Dhalla, 1979), formation of contraction bands (Ganote and Nayler, 1985), massive release of intracellular constituents (Zimmerman and Hulsmann, 1966), and depletion of tissue ATP and creatine phosphate (CP) stores (Boink et al., 1976).
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- Ganote, C. E., Altschuld, R. A., Nayler, W. G. and Piper, H. M. (1991). What constitutes the calcium paradox? J. Mot. Cell. Cardiol., 23 (in press)Google Scholar