Advertisement

Gender and Authority: Feasting and Fasting in Early Medieval Monasteries for Women

  • Bonnie Effros
Chapter
  • 19 Downloads
Part of the The New Middle Ages book series (TNMA)

Abstract

Food and drink occupied an important, albeit incongruous, position in the lives of religious women in early medieval Gaul. In late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, nuns were frequently lauded for their ability to provide hospitality in the manner of Martha’s devotion to Jesus and the apostles.1 Yet while supplying memorable repasts to their guests, they themselves only ate sparingly. This sort of generosity, practiced in conjunction with extreme personal abstinence, was far from being uniquely female in its manifestation;2 as we saw in the last chapter, hagiographical sources reveal that moderation in food and drink, charity, and the taking in of guests all constituted general obligations of monastic life among both religious men and women.3 Although such behavior was encouraged in monastic regulations for male houses, some early medieval Rules for nuns nonetheless prohibited or limited women’s ability to sponsor banquets. As noted by Avitus of Vienne in a poem on virginity addressed to his sister Fuscina, scriptural precedents such as Luke 10.38–42 meant that laboring to provide food was not the Lord’s highest priority. Jesus had revealed that Mary and not Martha had chosen the best portion, since the latter was caught up in the ways of the world.4 Making meals clearly distracted women from a higher calling as virgins of Christ.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Notes to Chapter 3

  1. 1.
    Lynda L. Coon, Sacred Fictions: Holy Women and Hagiography in Late Antiquity (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania press, 1997), pp. 43–44.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jo Ann McNamara, “The Need to Give: Suffering and Female Sanctity in the Early Middle Ages,” in Images of Sanctity in Medieval Europe, edited by Renate Blumenfeld-Kosinski and Timea Szell (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), pp. 199–202.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    John Kitchen, Saints’ Lives and the Rhetoric of Gender: Male and Female in Merovingian Hagiography (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 13–15;Google Scholar
  4. Françoise Thelamon, “Ascèse et sociabilité. Les conduites alimentaires des moines d’Egypte au IVe siècle,” Revue des études augustiniennes 38 (1992), pp. 314–318.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Avitus of Vienne, Poematum libri VI 6.636–647, edited by Rudolf Peiper, in MGH:AA 6.2 (Berlin: Apud Weidmannos, 1883), p. 293.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Régine Le Jan, “Convents, Violence and Competition for Power in Seventh-Century Francia,” in Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages, edited by Mayke de Jong and Frans Theuws, TRW 6 (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2001), pp. 243–269.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    G. Sartory, “In der Arena der Askese. Fasten im frühen Christentum,” in Speisen, Schlemmen, Fasten. Eine Kulturgeschichte des Essens, edited by Uwe Schultz, (Frankfurt: Insel, 1993), pp. 71–82;Google Scholar
  8. Susanna Elm, “Virgins of God”: The Making of Asceticism in Late Antiquity (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994), pp. 253–282.Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    Massimo Montanari, The Culture of Food, translated by Carl Ipsen (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), pp. 23–25.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    Keith Bradley, “The Roman Family at Dinner,” in Meals in a Social Context: Aspects of the Communal Meal in the Hellenistic World, edited by Inge Nielsen and Hanne Sigismund Nielsen, Åhrus Studies in Mediterranean Antiquity 1 (Åhrus: Åhrus University Press, 1998), pp. 43–44.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    See for instance, Jerome’s praise for extreme forms of fasting in his letter to Furia: Jerome, Epistulae 1.54, edited by Isidore Hilberg, CSEL 54, revised edition (Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1996), pp. 466–479;Google Scholar
  12. Veronika E. Grimm, From Feasting to Fasting, The Evolution of a Sin: Attitudes to Food in Late Antiquity (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 162–196.Google Scholar
  13. 10.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 67, edited by Germain Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2 (Brugges: Jos. Van der Meersch, 1942), p. 120.Google Scholar
  14. 11.
    Venantius Fortunatus, De vita sanctae Radegundis 1.15 and 1.21, edited by Bruno Krusch, in MGH: SRM 2, new edition (Hanover: Impensis bibliopolii Hahniani, 1956), pp. 369, 371;Google Scholar
  15. Bruno Krusch, ed., Vita Rusticulae sive Marciae abbatissae Arelatensis 7, in MGH: SRM 4 (Hanover: Impensis bibliopolii Hahniani, 1902), p. 343.Google Scholar
  16. 12.
    Gregory of Tours, Liber vitae patrum 19.1, edited by Bruno Krusch, in MGH: SRM 1.2 (Hanover: Impensis bibliopolii Hahniani, 1885), pp. 286–287;Google Scholar
  17. Kitchen Saints’ Lives, pp. 101–108, 113.Google Scholar
  18. 13.
    Benedicta Ward, “Pelagia: Beauty Riding By,” in her Harlots of the Desert:A Study of Repentance in Early Monastic Sources (Kalamazoo: Cistercian Publications, Inc., 1987), pp. 57–75.Google Scholar
  19. 14.
    Grimm, From Feasting to Fasting, pp. 162–171.Google Scholar
  20. 15.
    Aline Rousselle, “Abstinence et continence dans les monastères de Gaule méridionale à la fin de l’antiquité et au début du moyen age: Étude d’un régime alimentaire et de sa fonction,” in Hommage á André Dupont (1897–1972): Études médiévales languedociennes (Montpellier: Féderation historique du Languedoc méditerranen et du Roussillon, 1974), pp. 239–242;Google Scholar
  21. Rudolph Arbesmann, “Fasting and Prophecy in Pagan and Christian Antiquity,” Traditio 7 (1949), pp. 35–36;Google Scholar
  22. Grimm, From Feasting to Fasting, pp. 171–196.Google Scholar
  23. 16.
    “Qui dominica ieiunat, peccat.” Caesarius of Arles, Regula monachorum, edited by Germain Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 153.Google Scholar
  24. 17.
    Venantius Fortunatus, Opera poetica Appendix 29, edited by Friedrich Leo, MGH:AA 4.1 (Berlin:Apud Weidmannos, 1961), p. 290;Google Scholar
  25. Judith W. George, Venantius Fortunatus: A Latin Poet in Merovingian Gaul (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992), pp. 173–174.Google Scholar
  26. 18.
    Ferreolus of Uzès, Regula ad monachos 35, edited by Jacques-Paul Migne, in PL 66 (Paris: Apud J.-P. Migne, Editorem, 1866), p. 972.Google Scholar
  27. 19.
    Avitus of Vienne, Poematum libri VI 2.204–276, edited by Peiper, in MGH: AA 6.2, pp. 217–219.Google Scholar
  28. 20.
    Marc van Uytfanghe, Stylisation biblique et condition humaine dans l’hagiographie mérovingienne (650–750), Verhandelingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschnappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België, Klasse der Letteren 49, vol. 120 (Brussels: Paleis der Academiën, 1987), pp. 161–169;Google Scholar
  29. Michael J. Enright, Lady with a Mead Cup: Ritual, Prophesy and Lordship in the European Warband from La Téne to the Viking Age (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1996), pp. 16–17.Google Scholar
  30. 21.
    Bridget Ann Henisch, Fast and Feast: Food in Medieval Society (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976), pp. 2–10.Google Scholar
  31. 22.
    Walther Schönfeld, “Die Xenodochien in Italien und Frankreich im frühen Mittelalter,” Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte, kanonistische Abteilung 12 (1922), pp. 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 23.
    Sulpicius Severus, Dialogi 12, edited by Karl Halm, in CSEL 1 (Vienna: Apud C. Geroldi Filium Bibliopolam Academiae, 1866), p. 194;Google Scholar
  33. René Metz, “Les vièrges chrétiennes en Gaule au IVe siècle,” in Saint Martin et son temps: Memorial au XVI e centenaire des débuts du monachisme en Gaule 361–1961, Studia anselmiana 46 (Rome: Herder, 1961), pp. 119–120.Google Scholar
  34. 24.
    Krusch, ed., Vita Rusticulae sive Marciae abbatissae Arelatensis 4, in MGH: SRM 4, p. 341.Google Scholar
  35. On the authenticity of this Merovingian vita, see: Pierre Riché, “Note d’hagiographie mérovingienne: La vita S. Rusticulae,” Analecta bollandiana 72 (1954), pp. 369–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 25.
    D.C. Lambot, “Le prototype des monastères cloîtrés de femmes: L’abbaye Saint-Jean d’Arles (VIe siècle),” Revue liturgique et monastique 23 (1937–1938), pp. 170–174.Google Scholar
  37. 26.
    David G. Hunter, “Clerical Celibacy and the Veiling of Virgins: New Boundaries in Late Ancient Christianity,” in The Limits of Ancient Christianity: Essays on Late Antique Thought and Culture in Honor of R.A. Markus, edited by William E. Klingshirn and Mark Vessey (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999), pp. 142–144.Google Scholar
  38. 27.
    Metz, “Les vièrges chrétiennes,” pp. 109–132.Google Scholar
  39. 28.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 1, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, pp. 101–102.Google Scholar
  40. On the manuscript tradition of this Rule, see: Germain Morin, “Problèmes relatifs à la règle de S. Césaire d’Arles pour les moniales,” Revue bénédictine 44 (1932), pp. 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 29.
    William E. Klingshirn, Caesarius of Arles: The Making of a Christian Community in Late Antique Gaul (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 104–107, 117–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 30.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 2, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 102.Google Scholar
  43. 31.
    Charles de Clercq, ed., Conc. Aurelianense a.549 c.19, in Concilia Galliae a.511–a.695, in CCSL 148a (Turnhout:Typographi Brepols editores pontificii, 1963), p. 155.Google Scholar
  44. 32.
    Augustine of Hippo, Opera omnia Ep. 211, edited by Jacques-Paul Migne, in PL 33 (Paris: Apud editorem in via dicta d’Amboise, 1845), pp. 958–965.Google Scholar
  45. 33.
    Ambrose of Milan, De virginibus libri tres 3.2 and 3.4, edited by Egnatius Cazzaniga, in Corpus scriptorum latinorum Pravianum (Turin: In aedibus Io. Bapt. Paraviae et sociorum, 1948), pp. 59, 64.Google Scholar
  46. 34.
    John Cassian, De institutis coenobiorum 3.8, edited by Michael Petschenig, CSEL 17 (Vienna: F. Tempsky, 1888), pp. 42–43.Google Scholar
  47. 35.
    Friedrich Prinz, Frühes Mönchtum im Frankenreich: Kultur und Gesellschaft in Gallien, den Rheinlanden und Bayern am Beispiel der monastischen Entwicklung (4. bis 8. Jahrhundert), second edition (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1988), pp. 72–77.Google Scholar
  48. 36.
    For the problematic dating of the adoption of Caesarius’s Rule at Poitiers based in part on Gregory of Tours’s Libri historiarum X 9.40, see: René Aigrain, “Le voyage de Sainte Radegonde à Arles,” Bulletin philologique et historique (1926–1927), pp. 119–127.Google Scholar
  49. 37.
    Georg Scheibelreiter, “Königstöchter im Kloster: Radegund (+587) und der Nonnenaufstand von Poitiers (589),” Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung 87 (1979), pp. 14–16;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fernand Benoit, “Topographie monastique d’Arles au VIe siècle,” in Études mérovingiennes: Actes des journées de Poitiers 1 er –3 mai 1952 (Poitiers: Éditions A. et J. Picard, 1953), pp. 13–17.Google Scholar
  51. 38.
    Donald Hochstetler, “The Meaning of Monastic Cloister for Women According to Caesarius of Arles,” in Religion, Culture, and Society in the Early Middle Ages. Studies in Honor of Richard E. Sullivan, edited by Thomas F. X. Noble and John J. Contreni (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1987), pp. 27–40.Google Scholar
  52. 39.
    D. C. Lambot, “Le prototype des monastères,” pp. 170–174.Google Scholar
  53. 40.
    Klingshirn, Caesarius of Arles, pp. 117–123.Google Scholar
  54. 41.
    Roberta Gilchrist, Gender and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Religious Women (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 4–8.Google Scholar
  55. 42.
    Hans-Werner Goetz, “Heiligenkult und Geschlecht: Geschlectsspezifisches Wunderwirken in frühmittelalterliche Mirakelberichten?” Das Mittelalter 1 (1996), pp. 89–111;Google Scholar
  56. Hans-Werner Goetz, “Nomen feminile: Namen und Namengebung der Frauen im frühen Mittelalter,” Francia 23 (1996), pp. 99–134.Google Scholar
  57. He points out some of the problematic aspects of studies seeking to incorporate quantitative data, such as: Jane Tibbetts Schulenberg, “Female Sanctity: Public and Private Roles, ca. 500–1100,” in Women and Power in the Middle Ages, edited by Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988), pp. 102–125.Google Scholar
  58. 43.
    Maurice Godelier, Idéel et le matériel: Pensée, économies, sociétés (Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1984), pp. 46–61.Google Scholar
  59. 44.
    Prinz, Frühes Monchtum, pp. 76–77;Google Scholar
  60. J. Biarne, “Les temps du moine d’après les premières règles monastiques d’Occident (IVe-VIe siècles),” in Les temps chrétien de la fin de l’antiquité au moyen âge III e -XIIIe siècles, Colloques internationaux du CNRS 604 (Paris: Éditions du CNRS, 1984), p. 101.Google Scholar
  61. 45.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 71, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 123;Google Scholar
  62. Caesarius of Arles, Regula monachorum, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarii episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 154.Google Scholar
  63. 46.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 14 and 30, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, pp. 104, 108–109.Google Scholar
  64. 47.
    Caesarius of Arles, Regula monachorum, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, pp. 150–154.Google Scholar
  65. 48.
    Rousselle, “Abstinence et continence,” pp. 242–246.Google Scholar
  66. 49.
    Caesarius of Arles, Regula monachorum, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, pp. 153–154.Google Scholar
  67. 50.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 67, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 120.Google Scholar
  68. 51.
    Caesarius of Arles, Sanctae sorori Caesariae abbatissae 3, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 136.Google Scholar
  69. 52.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 39, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 112.Google Scholar
  70. 53.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 40, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 112.Google Scholar
  71. 54.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 53, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, p. 116;Google Scholar
  72. Morin, “Problèmes relatifs,” pp. 12–15.Google Scholar
  73. 55.
    Adalbert de Vogüé, “La règle de Donat pour l’abbesse Gauthstrude,” Benedictina 25 (1978), c.58, pp. 294–295.Google Scholar
  74. 56.
    Charles de Clercq, La législation religieuse franque de Clovis à Charlemagne. Études sur les actes de conciles et les capitulaires, les statuts diocésaines et les rêgles monastiques 507–814 (Louvain: Bibliothèque de l’Université, 1936), pp. 85–87;Google Scholar
  75. Prinz, Frühes Mönchtum, p. 80.Google Scholar
  76. 57.
    Benedict of Nursia, Regula 56, edited by Rudolph Hanslik, CSEL 75, revised edition (Vienna: Hoelder-Pichler Tempsky, 1977), p. 144.Google Scholar
  77. 58.
    Aurelian of Arles, Regula ad monachos 48, edited by Jacques-Paul Migne, in PL 68 (Paris: Apud editorem in via dicta d’Amboise, 1847), p. 392.Google Scholar
  78. 59.
    Aurelian of Arles, Regula ad virgines, edited by Jacques-Paul Migne, in PL 68, pp. 397–408.Google Scholar
  79. 0.
    6 De Vogüé, “La règle de Donat,” c.58, p. 295.Google Scholar
  80. 61.
    a Leander of Seville, Liber de institutione virginum et contemptu mundi ad Florentinam sororem 4, 8, 9 and 15, edited by Jacques-Paul Migne, in PL 72 (Paris: Paul Garnier fratres, editores, 1878), pp. 882–885, 889.Google Scholar
  81. 62.
    Venantius Fortunatus and Baudonivia, De vita sanctae Radegundis libri II, new edition, edited by Krusch, in MGH SRM 2, pp. 358–395;Google Scholar
  82. Gregory of Tours, Liber in gloria confessorum 104, edited by Bruno Krusch, in MGH: SRM 1.2 (Hanover: Impensis bibliopolii Hahniani, 1885), pp. 814–816;Google Scholar
  83. Gregory of Tours, Liber in gloria martyrum 5, edited by Bruno Krusch, in MGH: SRM 1.2, pp. 489–492;Google Scholar
  84. Gregory of Tours, Libri historiarum X 3.7, 9.2; 9.39–43; 10.15–17, edited by Bruno Krusch, MGH: SRM 1.1, revised edition (Hanover: Impensis bibliopolii Hahniani, 1951), pp. 103–105, 415, 460–475, 501–509.Google Scholar
  85. 63.
    Venantius Fortunatus, Opera poetica, edited by Leo, in MGH:AA 4.1.Google Scholar
  86. 64.
    Dick Harrison, The Age of Abbesses and Queens: Gender and Political Culture in Early Medieval Europe (Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 1998), pp. 94–95.Google Scholar
  87. 65.
    De Clercq, ed., Conc. Aurelianense a.511 c.19 and 22, in Concilia Galliae, CCSL 148a, pp. 10–11.Google Scholar
  88. 66.
    De Clercq, ed., Conc. Aurelianense a.533 c.21, in Concilia Galliae, CCSL 148a, pp. 102.Google Scholar
  89. 67.
    De Clercq, ed., Conc. Arelatense a.554 c.2, in Concilia Galliae, CCSL 148a, pp. 171–172.Google Scholar
  90. 68.
    Scheibelreiter, “Königstöchter,” pp. 1–5, 10;Google Scholar
  91. Brian Brennan, “St. Radegund and the Early Development of her Cult at Poitiers,” Journal of Religious History 13 (1985), pp. 340–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 69.
    Étienne Delaruelle, “Sainte Radegonde, son type de saintetè et la chrétienté de son temps,” in études mérovingiennes, pp. 65–72.Google Scholar
  93. 70.
    Bonnie Effros, “Symbolic Expressions of Sanctity: Gertrude of Nivelles in the Context of Merovingian Mortuary Custom,” Viator 27 (1996), pp. 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 71.
    Sabine Gäbe, “Radegundis: Sancta, Regina, Ancilla. Zum Heiligskeitideal der Radegundisviten von Fortunat und Baudonivia,” Francia 16 (1989), pp. 2–4;Google Scholar
  95. Delaruelle, “Sainte Radegonde,” pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
  96. 72.
    Gregory of Tours, Libri historiarum X 3.7, edited by Krusch, MGH: SRM 1.1, p. 105.Google Scholar
  97. 73.
    a George, Venantius Fortunatus, pp. 169–173.Google Scholar
  98. 74.
    Brennan, “St. Radegund,” pp. 341–342;Google Scholar
  99. Jo Ann McNamara and John E. Halborg, trans., Sainted Women of the Dark Ages (Durham: Duke University Press, 1992), p. 63;Google Scholar
  100. Maria Caritas McCarthy, trans., The Rule for Nuns of Caesarius of Arles: A Translation with a Critical Introduction, Catholic University of America, Studies in Mediaeval History, new series 16 (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1960), p. 160.Google Scholar
  101. 75.
    Caroline Walker Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast:The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), pp. 78–84.Google Scholar
  102. 76.
    Aline Rousselle, Porneia: On Desire and the Body in Antiquity, translated by Felicia Pheasant (Cambridge: Blackwell, 1988), pp. 160–173.Google Scholar
  103. 77.
    For the use of asceticism, in particular sexual asceticism, to advance clerical authority in late antiquity, see: Kate Cooper, The Virgin and the Bride: Idealized Womanhood in Late Antiquity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), pp. 55–59.Google Scholar
  104. 78.
    Simon Coates, “Regendering Radegund? Fortunatus, Baudonivia and the Problem of Female Sanctity in Merovingian Gaul,” in Gender and Christian Religion: Papers Read at the 1996 Summer Meeting and the 1997 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, edited by R. N. Swanson, Studies in Church History 34 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 1998), pp. 40–42.Google Scholar
  105. 79.
    Venantius Fortunatus, De vita sanctae Radegundis 1.15 and 1.21, edited by Krusch, in MGH: SRM 2, pp. 369, 371.Google Scholar
  106. 80.
    Wilhelm Gundlach, ed., Epistolae aevi Merovingicae collectae 11, in MGH: Epistolae 1 (Berlin: Apud Weidmannos, 1892), p. 452.Google Scholar
  107. 81.
    Venantius Fortunatus, Opera poetica 11.4, edited by Leo, MGH:AA 4.1, p. 269;Google Scholar
  108. George, Venantius Fortunatus, p. 172.Google Scholar
  109. 82.
    Baudonivia, De vita sanctae Radegundis libri II 2.7–8, edited by Krusch, in MGH: SRM 2, pp. 382–383.Google Scholar
  110. 83.
    Jacques Fontaine, “Hagiographie et politique, de Sulpice Sévère à Venance Fortunat,” Revue historique écclesiastique en France 62 (1976), pp. 113–140.Google Scholar
  111. Louise Coudanne, “Baudonivie, moniale de Sainte-Croix et biographe de Sainte-Radegonde,” in Études mérovingiennes, pp. 45–49.Google Scholar
  112. 84.
    George, Venantius Fortunatus, pp. 161–168.Google Scholar
  113. 85.
    Bonnie Effros, “Images of Sanctity: Contrasting Descriptions of Radegund by Venantius Fortunatus and Gregory of Tours,” UCLA Historical Journal 10 (1990), pp. 38–58.Google Scholar
  114. 86.
    Baudonivia, De vita sanctae Radegundis libri II 2.16, edited by Krusch, in MGH:SRM 2, p. 388;Google Scholar
  115. Gregory of Tours, Liber in gloria martyrum 5, edited by Krusch, in MGH: SRM 1.2, p. 489;Google Scholar
  116. Gäbe, “Radegundis,” pp. 5–15;Google Scholar
  117. Suzanne Fonay Wemple, Women in Frankish Society: Marriage and the Cloister 500–900 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981), pp. 181–185.Google Scholar
  118. 87.
    Gregory of Tours, Libri historiarum X 10.16, edited by Krusch,MGH:SRM 1.1, p. 506.Google Scholar
  119. For commentary on this incident: McNamara and Halborg, trans., Sainted Women of the Dark Ages, pp. 64–65.Google Scholar
  120. 88.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 14, 30, 71, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, pp. 104, 108–109, 123.Google Scholar
  121. McCarthy, ed., The Rule for Nuns, pp. 174, 180, 202–204.Google Scholar
  122. 89.
    Venantius Fortunatus, De vita sanctae Radegundis 1.17, 1.20, 1.24, edited by Krusch, in MGH: SRM 2, pp. 370–372;Google Scholar
  123. Kitchen, Saints’ Lives, pp. 144–145.Google Scholar
  124. 90.
    For specific references to convivia in the poetry of Fortunatus, see: Venantius Fortunatus, Opera poetica 11.22, 11.22a, 11.23, 11.23a, edited by Leo, MGH: AA 4.1, pp. 267–268.Google Scholar
  125. Venantius Fortunatus, Opera poetica 11.20, edited by Leo, MGH AA 4.1, p. 266.Google Scholar
  126. 91.
    Venantius Fortunatus, De vita sanctae Radegundis 1.31, 2.10, edited by Krusch, in MGH: SRM 2, pp. 374, 384–385;Google Scholar
  127. Kitchen, Saints’ Lives, pp. 152–153.Google Scholar
  128. 92.
    Bruno Krusch, ed., Vita Genovefae virginis Parisiensis 21, in MGH: SRM 3 (Hanover: Impensis bibliopolii Hahniani, 1896), p. 18;Google Scholar
  129. Giselle de Nie, Views from a Many-Windowed Tower: Studies of Imagination in the Works of Gregory of Tours (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1987), pp. 112–113.Google Scholar
  130. 93.
    Jo Ann McNamara, “A Legacy of Miracles: Hagiography and Nunneries in Merovingian Gaul,” in Women of the Medieval World, edited by Julius Kirshner and Suzanne F. Wemple (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985), pp. 45–46.Google Scholar
  131. 94.
    Caesarius of Arles, Ad regulam virginum 39–41, 53, edited by Morin, in Sanctus Caesarius episcopus Arelatensis, Opera omnia 2, pp. 112, 116;Google Scholar
  132. Hochstetler, “The Meaning of Monastic Cloister,” pp. 28–31.Google Scholar
  133. 96.
    Jo Ann McNamara, “Imitatio Helenae: Sainthood as an Attribute of Queenship,” in Saints: Studies in Hagiography, edited by Sandro Sticca, Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies 141 (Binghamton: SUNY Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, 1996), pp. 63–66.Google Scholar
  134. 97.
    Arbesmann, “Fasting and Prophecy,” pp. 9–20.Google Scholar
  135. 98.
    Isabel Moreira, “Provisatrix optima: St. Radegund of Poitiers’ Relic Petitions to the East,” Journal of Medieval History 19 (1993), pp. 285–290, 298–305;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. George, Venantius Fortunatus, pp. 165–167.Google Scholar
  137. 99.
    Venantius Fortunatus, De vita sanctae Radegundis libri II 2.16, edited by Krusch, in MGH: SRM 2, pp. 387–389.Google Scholar
  138. 100.
    Gregory of Tours, Libri historiarum X 9.40, edited by Krusch, MGH: SRM 1.1, p. 464;Google Scholar
  139. Scheibelreiter, “Königstöchter,” pp. 12–13.Google Scholar
  140. 101.
    Peter Brown, “Relics and Social Status in the Age of Gregory of Tours,” in his Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (London: Faber & Faber, Ltd., 1982), pp. 247–249.Google Scholar
  141. Moreira, “Provisatrix optima,” pp. 302–303.Google Scholar
  142. 102.
    Venantius Fortunatus, Opera poetica Appendix 2, edited by Leo, MGH:AA 4.1, pp. 275–278;Google Scholar
  143. E. Gordon Whatley, “An Early Literary Quotation from the Inventio S. Crucis: A Note on Baudonivia’s Vita S. Radegundis (BHL 7049),” Analecta bollandiana 111 (1993), pp. 81–91;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Gäbe, “Radegundis,” pp. 16–18.Google Scholar
  145. 103.
    Krusch, ed., Vita Rusticulae sive Marciae abbatissae Arelatensis 7, in MGH: SRM 4, p. 343;Google Scholar
  146. Susanne Wittern, Frauen, Heiligkeit und Macht. Lateinische Frauenviten aus dem 4. bis 7. Jahrhundert, Ergebnisse der Frauenforschung 33 (Stuttgart:Verlag J.B. Metzler, 1994), pp. 90–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 104.
    Krusch, ed., Vita Rusticulae sive Marciae abbatissae Arelatensis 16, 19, 26, 27, in MGH: SRM 4, pp. 346–347, 350–351.Google Scholar
  148. 105.
    Felice Lifshitz, “Is Mother Superior? Towards a History of Feminine Amtscharisma,” in Medieval Mothering, edited by John Carmi Parsons and Bonnie Wheeler (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996), p. 126.Google Scholar
  149. On Burgundofara in general, see: Alexander Bergengruen, Adel und Grundherrschaft im Merowingerreich, Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, Beihefte 41 (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag GmbH, 1958), pp. 65–76.Google Scholar
  150. 106.
    Prinz, Frühes Mönchtum, pp. 81–82.Google Scholar
  151. 107.
    Jacques-Paul Migne, ed., Regula cuiusdam patris ad virgines 3, in PL 88 (Paris: J.-P. Migne editorem, 1862), pp. 1054–1055.Google Scholar
  152. 108.
    Jonas of Bobbio, Vitae Columbani abbatis discipulorumque eius, libri II 2.22, edited by Bruno Krusch, in MGH: SRG 37 (Hanover: Impensis bibliopolii Hahniani, 1905), pp. 277–279.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bonnie Effros 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bonnie Effros

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations