Advertisement

Species Selection for Soil Reinforcement and Protection

  • Joanne E. Norris
  • Antonino Di Iorio
  • Alexia Stokes
  • Bruce C. Nicoll
  • Alexis Achim
Chapter

Species selection is vitally important for ensuring the success of any ecotechnological solution that may be employed on a particular site. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the engineer with a database of plant species that are suitable for both soil and slope stability by either mechanical or hydrological means, i.e., anchoring and buttressing of deep tap roots; bank and channel reinforcement; deep reinforcement and soil strength enhancement; removing soil moisture, surface protection, shallow reinforcement and erosion control. Protection forests rely on the stability of trees to maintain their integrity especially during storms and with regard to rockfall or avalanches. We therefore provide guidelines as to which species best resist these abiotic forces on slopes.

Keywords

grasses pioneer plants plant morphology role of vegetation shrubs soil re-inforcement trees 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe K, Ziemer RR (1991) Effect of tree roots on shallow-seated landslides. USDA Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-130Google Scholar
  2. Alard D, Bance JF, Frileux PN (1994) Grassland vegetation as an indicator of the main agroecological factors in a rural landscape: consequences for biodiversity and wildlife conservation in central Normandy (France). J Env Manage 42:91-109Google Scholar
  3. Barraclough PB, Wier AH, Kuhlmann H (1991) Factors affecting the growth and distribution ofwinter wheat roots under UK field conditions. In: McMichael BL, Persson H (eds) Plant Roots and their Environment, Proceedings of an ISRR Symposium, August 21-26 1988, Uppsala, Sweden. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 410-417Google Scholar
  4. Bédécarrats A (1991) Dynamique des enherbements des pistes de ski en Savoie et leur gestion pastorale. In: IVth International Rangeland Congress, Association Française de Pastoralisme, Montpellier, France, pp 77-80Google Scholar
  5. Bochet E, Poesen J, Rubio JL (2006) Runoff and soil loss under individual plants of a semiarid Mediterranean shrubland: influence of plant morphology and rainfall intensity. Earth Surf Proc Land 31:536-549Google Scholar
  6. Bouchon J (1987) Etat de la recherché relative aux dégâts forestiers dus aux tempêtes. Revue Forestière Française XXXIX 4:301-312Google Scholar
  7. Brauner M, Weinmeister W, Agner P, Vospernik S, Hoesle B (2005) Forest management decision support for evaluating forest protection effects against rockfall. For Ecol Manage 207:75-85Google Scholar
  8. Bűsgen M, Munch E, Thomson T (1929) The structure and life of forest trees. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Cammeraat LH, Van Beek R, Kooijman A (2005) Vegetation succession and its consequences for slope stability in SE Spain. Plant Soil 278:135-147Google Scholar
  10. Coppin NJ, Richards IJ (1990) Use of Vegetation in Civil Engineering. CIRIA, Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Couturier DE, Ripley EA (1973) Rainfall interception in mixed grass prairie. Can J Plant Sci 53:659-663Google Scholar
  12. Danjon F, Barker DH, Drexhage M, Stokes A (2007) Using 3D plant root architecture in models of shallow slope stability. Ann Bot-London, in pressGoogle Scholar
  13. De Baets S, Poesen J, Knapen A, Barberá GG, Navarro JA (2007) Root characteristics of representative Mediterranean plant species and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff. Plant Soil 294:169-183Google Scholar
  14. Di Iorio A, Lasserre B, Scippa GS, Chiatante D (2005) Root system architecture of Quercus pubescens trees growing on different sloping conditions. Ann Bot-Lond 95:351-361Google Scholar
  15. Dissmeyer GE, Foster GR (1985) Modifying the universal soil loss equation for forest land. In: El-Swaify SA, Moldenhauer WC, Lo A (eds) Soil Erosion and Conservation Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, pp 480-495Google Scholar
  16. Dorren LKA, Berger F, le Hir C, Mermin E, Tardif P (2005) Mechanisms, effects and management implications of rockfall in forests. For Ecol Manage 215:183-195Google Scholar
  17. Dorren LKA, Berger F (2006) Stem breakage of trees and energy dissipation during rockfall impacts. Tree Physiol 26:63-71Google Scholar
  18. Eis S (1978) Natural root forms of western conifers. In: Symposium on Root Form of Planted Trees. Victoria, BC, Canada, pp 23-27Google Scholar
  19. Forman R, Godron M (1986) Landscape Ecology. Wiley, Chichester, U.K.Google Scholar
  20. Gray DH, Sotir RB (1996) Biotechnical and Soil Bioengineering Slope Stabilization: A Practical Guide for Erosion Control. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Gyssels G, Poesen J, Nachtergaele J, Govers G (2002) The impact of sowing density of small grains on rill and gully erosion in concentrated flow zones. Soil Tillage Res 64:189-201Google Scholar
  22. Gyssels G, Poesen J, Bochet E, Li Y (2005) Impact of plant roots on the resistance of soils to erosion by water: a review. Prog Phys Geog 29:189-217Google Scholar
  23. Hartman R, De Boodt M (1974) The influence of the moisture content, texture and organicmatter on the aggregation of sandy and loamy soils. Geoderma 11:53-62Google Scholar
  24. Henderson R, Ford ED, Deans JD, Renshaw E (1983) Morphology of the structural root system of Sitka Spruce. 1: Analysis and quantitative description. Forestry 56:121-135Google Scholar
  25. Heumader J (2007) Revegetation on steep slopes and in subalpine areas using biennial cover plants: a review of Huter’s technique. In: Stokes A, Spanos I, Norris JE, Cammeraat LH (eds) Ecoand Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp 427-438Google Scholar
  26. Köstler JN, Brückner E, Bibelriether H (1968) Die Wurzeln der Waldbäume. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg & BerlinGoogle Scholar
  27. Kupferschmid Albisetti AD, Brang P, Schonenberger W, Bugmann H (2003) Decay of Picea abies snag stands on steep mountain slopes. For Chron 79:247-252Google Scholar
  28. Kutschera L, Lichtenegger E (1997) Wurzeln. Bewurzelung von Pflanzen in verschiedenen Lebensräumen. Stapfia 49, Land Oberösterreich, OÖ. Landesmuseum, LinzGoogle Scholar
  29. Kutschera L, Lichtenegger E (2002) Wurzelatlas mitteleuropäischer Waldbäume und Sträucher. Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz-StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  30. Lammeranner W, Rauch HP, Laaha G (2005) Implementation and monitoring of soil bioengineering measures at a landslide in the Middle Mountains of Nepal. Plant Soil 278:159-170Google Scholar
  31. Mattia C, Bischetti GB, Gentile F (2005) Biotechnical characteristics of root systems of typical Mediterranean species. Plant Soil 278:23-32Google Scholar
  32. Mickovski SB, Stokes A, van Beek LPH (2005) A decision support tool for windthrow hazard assessment and prevention. For Ecol Manage 216:64-76Google Scholar
  33. Muller S, Dutoit T, Alard D, Grévilliot F (1998) Restoration and rehabilitation of species-rich grassland ecosystems in France: a review. Rest Ecol 6:94-101Google Scholar
  34. Myers RD (1993) Slope Stabilization and Erosion Control Using Vegetation: A Manual of Practice for Coastal Bluff. Document number 30, Washington State-Department of Ecology, Ecology publicationsGoogle Scholar
  35. Preston NJ, Crozier MJ (1999) Resistance to shallow landslide failure through root-derived cohesion in East Coast Hill Country soils, North Island, New Zealand. Earth Surf Proc Land 24:665-675Google Scholar
  36. Prosser IP, Dietrich WE, Stevenson J (1995) Flow resistance and sediment transport by concentrated overland flow in a grassland valley. Geomorphology 13:71-86Google Scholar
  37. Recondes (2007) Combating Land Degradation by Minimal Intervention: The Connectivity Reduction Approach, RECONDES team (eds), Published by University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK, http://www.port.ac.uk/research/recondes/
  38. Reid BJ, Goss MJ (1987) Effect of living roots of different plant species on the aggregate stability of two arable soils. J Soil Sci 32:521-541Google Scholar
  39. Reubens B, Poesen J, Danjon F, Geudens G, Muys B (2007) The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion control with a focus on root system architecture: a review. Trees-Struct Func 4:385-402Google Scholar
  40. Schiechtl HM (1980) Bioengineering for Land Reclamation and Conservation. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmid T, Mueller U, Tognini F, Meyer J (2007) Comparison of revegetation techniques on alpine slopes prone to avalanches and erosion. In: Stokes A, Spanos I, Norris JE, Cammeraat LH (eds) Ecoand Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences Volume 103, Springer Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 433-438Google Scholar
  42. Schönenberger W, Noack A, Thee P (2005) Effect of timber removal from windthrow slopes on the risk of snow avalanches and rockfall. For Ecol Manage 213:197-208Google Scholar
  43. Sidle RC, Pearce AJ, O’Loughlin CL (1985) Hillslope stability and land use. Am Geophys U. Water Res Monogr 11, pp 140Google Scholar
  44. Stokes A (2002) The biomechanics of tree root anchorage. In: Waisel Y, Eshel A, Kafkaki U (eds) Plant Roots-The Hidden Half. Plenum Publishing, New York, pp 175-186Google Scholar
  45. Stokes A (2006) Selecting tree species for rockfall protection forests. For Snow Land Res 80:77-86Google Scholar
  46. Stokes A, Salin F, Kokutse AD, Berthier S, Jeannin H, Mochan S, Kokutse N, Dorren L, Abd.Ghani M, Fourcaud T (2005) Mechanical resistance of different tree species to rockfall in the French Alps. Plant Soil 278:107-117Google Scholar
  47. Tasser E, Mader M, Tappeiner U (2003) Effects of land use in alpine grasslands on the probability of landslides. Basic Appl Ecol 4:271-280Google Scholar
  48. Tengbeh GT (1993) The effect of grass roots on shear strength variations with moisture content. Soil Tech 6:387-295Google Scholar
  49. Tsukamoto Y, Kusakabe O (1984) Vegetative influences on debris slide occurrences on steep slopes in Japan. In: Proc. Symposium Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability, Environment and policy Institute, Honolulu, HawaiiGoogle Scholar
  50. Van Beek LPH, Wint J, Cammeraat LH, Edwards JP (2005) Observation and simulation of root reinforcement on abandoned Mediterranean slopes. Plant Soil 278:55-74Google Scholar
  51. Van Noordwijk M, Brouwer G (1991) Review of quantitative root length data in agriculture. In: McMichael BL and Persson H (eds) Plant Roots and their Environment, Proceedings of an ISSR Symposium, August 21-26, 1988, Uppsala, Sweden, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 515-525Google Scholar
  52. Weigel G, Shrestha RB, Meyer WP, Berg C (1987) Vegetative Soil Conservation Measures: A Field Manual. Vol. 1. Soil and Watershed Conservation Section Tansen, Palpa, NepalGoogle Scholar
  53. Wu TH (2007) Root reinforcement analyses and experiments. In: Stokes A, Spanos I, Norris JE, Cammeraat LH (eds) Ecoand Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp 21-30Google Scholar
  54. Wu TH, Watson AJ, El-Khouly MA (2004) Soil-root interaction and slope stability. In: Barker DH, Watson AJ, Sombatpanit B, Northcut B, Magliano AR (eds) Ground and Water Bioengineering for Erosion Control and Slope Stabilization. Science Publishers Inc. USA, pp 183-192Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanne E. Norris
    • 1
  • Antonino Di Iorio
    • 2
  • Alexia Stokes
    • 3
  • Bruce C. Nicoll
    • 4
  • Alexis Achim
    • 5
  1. 1.Halcrow Group Ltd.PeterboroughUK
  2. 2.Dept. Chemical and Environmental SciencesUniversity of InsubriaItaly
  3. 3.INRAMontpellierFrance
  4. 4.Forest ResearchRoslinUK
  5. 5.Faculté de Foresterie et de GéomatiqueUniversité LavalQuébecCanada

Personalised recommendations