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Pine Wilt Disease And The Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus

  • Manuel M. Mota
  • Kazuyoshi Futai
  • Paulo Vieira
Chapter
Part of the Integrated Management of Plant Pests and Diseases book series (IMPD, volume 4)

Abstract

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is one of the most damaging events affecting conifer forests (in particular Pinus spp.), in the Far East (Japan, China and Korea), North America (USA and Canada) and, more recently, in the European Union (Portugal). In Japan it became catastrophic, damaging native pine species (Pinus thunbergii and P. densiflora), and becoming the main forest problem, forcing some areas to be totally replaced by other tree species. The pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus endemic, with minor damage, to North America, was introduced in Japan in the early XX century and then spread to Asia (China and Korea) in the 1980s. In 1999 it was detected for the first time in Portugal, where, due to timely detection and immediate government action, it was initially (1999-2008) contained to a small area 30 km SE of Lisbon. In 2008, the PWN spread again to central Portugal, the entire country now being classified as “affected area“. Being an A1 quarantine pest, the EU acted to avoid further PWN spreading and to eradicate it, by actions including financial support for surveyes and eradication, annual inspections and research programs. Experience from control actions in Japan included aerial spraying of insecticides to control the insect vector (the Cerambycid beetle Monochamus alternatus), injection of nematicides to the trunk of infected trees, slashing and burning of large areas out of control, beetle traps, biological control and tree breeding programs. These actions allowed some positive results, but also unsuccessful cases due to the PWN spread and virulence. Other Asian countries also followed similar strategies, but the nematode is still spreading in many regions. In Portugal, despite lower damage than Asia, PWD is still significant with high losses to the forestry industry. New ways of containing PWD include preventing movement of contaminated wood, cutting symptomatic trees and monitoring. Despite a national and EU legislative body, no successful strategy to control and eventually eradicate the nematode and the disease will prevail without sound scientific studies regarding the nematode and vector(s) bioecology and genetics, the ecology and ecophysiology of the pine tree species, P. pinaster and P. pinea, as well as the genomics and proteomics of pathogenicity (resistance/ susceptibility).

Keywords

European Union Insect Vector Pine Wilt Disease Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel M. Mota
    • 1
  • Kazuyoshi Futai
    • 2
  • Paulo Vieira
    • 1
  1. 1.NemaLab-ICAM, Departamento de BiologiaUniversidade de Évora7002-554 ÉvoraPORTUGAL
  2. 2.Laboratory of Environmental Mycoscience, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJAPAN

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