Advertisement

I-LEARN: A Model for Learning with Information

  • Delia NeumanEmail author
Chapter
  • 579 Downloads

Abstract

This chapter’s presentation of the I-LEARN model is the heart of the book. It is also the longest chapter—using detailed text and a series of illustrations to explain the author’s model for learning in information-rich environments. A description of information behavior that extends traditional information-seeking models into one focused directly on learning, the model provides a blueprint for developing the concepts and skills required for meaningful learning in the information age. The chapter explains and expands I-LEARN’s grounding in ideas presented in the previous chapters and illustrates its application in both formal and informal information-rich environments. Recursive rather than linear, the model includes six stages and eighteen elements that intertwine and overlap. These stages and elements are presented as concepts rather than as specific steps to underscore the model’s flexibility and applicability in a wide range of settings. Detailed examples provide extensive guidance for conceptualizing and implementing it. The chapter is the culmination of the book’s argument that the world itself is the ultimate information-rich environment and that the ability to access, evaluate, and use all types of its information is the key to twenty-first-century learning.

Keywords

Mental Representation Lifelong Learning Conceptual Knowledge Procedural Knowledge Instructional Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. American Association of School Librarians (2007). Standards for the 21 st -century learner. Chicago: ALA.Google Scholar
  2. American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology (1998). Information power: Building partnerships for learning. Chicago: ALA Editions.Google Scholar
  3. American Library Association (1989). Presidential committee on information literacy: Final report. Available at http://www.ala.org/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/whitepapers/ALA
  4. Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.) (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Addison Wesley Longman.Google Scholar
  5. Association of College and Research Libraries (2000). Information literacy competency standards for higher education. Chicago: ALA.Google Scholar
  6. Barry, C. (1994). User-defined relevance criteria: An exploratory study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 45, 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloom, B. S. (Ed). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Cognitive domain. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  8. Bransford, J.D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (Eds.), (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  9. Buckland, M. (1991). Information and information systems. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  10. Cuadra, C., & Katter, R. V. (1967). Opening the black box of relevance. Journal of Documentation, 23(4), 291–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dervin, B. (1992). From the mind’s eye of the user: The sense-making qualitative-quantitative methodology. In J. Glazier & R. Powell (Eds.), Qualitative research in information management. (pp. 61–84). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.Google Scholar
  12. Dervin, B. (1998). Sense-Making theory and practice: An overview of user interests in knowledge seeking and use. Journal of Knowledge Management, 2(2), 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dervin, B., Foreman-Wernet, L., & Lauterbach, E. (Eds). (2003). Sense-making methodology reader. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  14. Dervin, B., & Nilan, M. (1986). Information needs and uses. Annual review of information science and technology, 21, 3–33.Google Scholar
  15. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. Boston, MA. D C. Heath.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gagne, R. M. (1965). The conditions of learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  17. Gagne, R. M. (1985). The conditions of learning (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  18. Gross, M. (1999). Imposed queries in the school library media center: A descriptive study. Library & Information Science Research 21(4), 501–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gross, M. (2000). The imposed query and information services for children. Journal of Youth Services in Libraries 13, 10–17.Google Scholar
  20. Gross, M., & Saxton, M. L. (2001). Who wants to know? Imposed queries in the public library. Public Libraries 40(3), 170–176.Google Scholar
  21. Hannafin, M. J., & Hill, J. R. (2008). Resource-based learning. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. van Merrienboer, & M. P. Driscoll, M. P. (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed.). (pp. 525–536). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. Harris, F. J. (2005). I found it on the Internet: Coming of age online. Chicago: American Library Association.Google Scholar
  23. Hill, J. R., & Hannafin, M. J. (2001). Teaching and learning in digital environments: The resurgence of resource-based learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(3), 37–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hirsch, S. G. (1999). Children’s relevance criteria and information seeking on electronic resources. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(14), 1265–1283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. International Federation of Library Associations (2003). Alexandria manifesto on libraries. Available at http://www.ifla.org/en/publications/alexandria-manifesto-on-libraries-the-information-society-in-action
  26. International Society for Technology in Education. (2007). National educational technology standards for students (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: ISTE.Google Scholar
  27. Jonasssen, D. H., Beissner, K., & Yacci, M. (1993). Structural knowledge: Techniques for representing, conveying, and acquiring structural knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Kuhlthau, C. C. (1985). A process approach to library skills instruction. School Library Media Quarterly, 13(1), 35–40.Google Scholar
  29. Kuhlthau, C. C. (1988). Longitudinal case studies of the Information Search Process of users in libraries. Library and Information Science Research, 10(3), 257–304.Google Scholar
  30. Kuhlthau, C. C. (1993). Seeking meaning: A process approach to library and information services. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.Google Scholar
  31. Kuhlthau, C. C. (1997). Learning in digital libraries: An information search process approach. Library Trends, 45(4), 708–725.Google Scholar
  32. Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K., & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Guided inquiry: Learning in the 21 st century. Westport, CN: Libraries Unlimited.Google Scholar
  33. Marchionini, G. (1995). Information seeking in electronic environments. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martin, B. L., & Briggs, L. J. (1986). The affective and cognitive domains: Integration for instruction and research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar
  35. Martin, B. L., & Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). Affective education and the affective domain: Implications for instructional design theories and models. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design—Theories and models. Vol. II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. (pp. 485–509). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  36. Mayer, R. (1999). Designing instruction for constructivist learning. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design—Theories and models. Vol. II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. (pp.141–159). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  37. McKenzie, J. (2007). Questioning toolkit. http://www.questioning.org/Q7/toolkit.html
  38. Merrill, M. D. (1983). Component display theory. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design—Theories and models. (pp. 279–333). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  39. Merrill, M. D. (1999). Instructional transaction theory: Instructional design based on knowledge objects. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design—Theories and models. Vol. II: A new paradigm of instructional theory. (pp. 397–424). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  40. Merrill, M. D., Jones, M. K., & Li, Z. (1992). Instructional transaction theory: Classes of transactions. Educational Technology, 32(6), 12–26.Google Scholar
  41. Neuman, D. (1995). High school students’ use of databases: Results of a national Delphi study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 46(4), 284–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Neuman, D. (2001). Learning in an information-rich environment: Preliminary results. In D. Callison (Ed.), Proceedings of the Treasure Mountain Research Retreat #10, pp. 39–51. Salt Lake City: Hi Willow.Google Scholar
  43. Neuman, D. (2003). Research in school library media for the next decade: Polishing the diamond. Library Trends, 51(4), 503–524.Google Scholar
  44. Pettigrew, K. E., Fidel, R., & Bruce, H. (2001). Conceptual frameworks in information behaviour. Annual review of information science and technology, 35, 43–78.Google Scholar
  45. Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pitts, J. M. (1994). Personal understandings and mental models of information: A qualitative study of factors associated with the information seeking and use of adolescents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida State University, Tallahassee.Google Scholar
  47. Raber, D. (2003). The problem of information. Lanham, MD. Scarecrow.Google Scholar
  48. Rieh, S. Y. (2002). Judgment of information quality and cognitive authority in the Web. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53(2), 145–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rieh, S. Y. (2010). Credibility and cognitive authority of information. In M. Bates & M. N. Maack (Eds.) Encyclopedia of library and information sciences (3rd ed.). (pp. 1337–1344). New York: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  50. Salomon, G. (1974). Interaction of meaning, cognition, and learning. An exploration of how symbolic forms cultivate mental skills and affect knowledge acquisition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  51. Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. N. (1998). Individual and social aspects of learning. In P. D. Pearson & A. Iran-Nejad (Eds.), Review of research in education (pp. 1–24). Washington, DC: AERA.Google Scholar
  52. Saracevic, T. (1975). Relevance: A review and a framework for the thinking on the notion of information science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 26(6), 321–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Saracevic, T. (2007a). Relevance: A review of the literature and a framework for thinking on the notion in information science. Part II: Nature and manifestations of relevance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(13), 1915–1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Saracevic, T. (2007b). Relevance: A review of the literature and a framework for thinking on the notion in information science. Part III: Behavior and ethics of relevance. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(13), 2126–2144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schamber, L. (1994). Relevance and information behavior. Annual review of information science and technology, 29, 3–48.Google Scholar
  56. Schamber, L., Eisenberg, M. B., & Nilan, M. S. (1990). A re-examination of relevance: Toward a dynamic, situational definition. Information Processing and Management, 26, 755–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schon, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  58. Small, R.V., & Arnone, M.P. (2000). Turning kids on to research: The power of motivation. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.Google Scholar
  59. UNESCO (2003). The Prague Declaration: Towards an information literate society. Available at http://portal.unesco.org
  60. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of the higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  61. White, H. D. (2010a). Relevance in theory. In M. J. Bates & M. N. Maack (Eds.) Encyclopedia of library and information sciences (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  62. White, H. D. (2010b). Some new tests of relevance theory in information science. Scientometrics, 83(3), 653–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998, 2005). Understanding by design (1st and 2nd eds.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum development.Google Scholar
  64. Wilson, P. (1968). Two kinds of power: An essay on bibliographical control. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  65. Wilson, T. D. (1981). On user studies and information needs. Journal of Documentation, 37(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wilson, T. D. (1999). Models in information behaviour research. Journal of Documentation, 55(3), 2249–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Information Science and TechnologyDrexel UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations