# Introduction

• Richard A. Holmgren
Chapter
Part of the Universitext book series (UTX)

## Abstract

A discrete dynamical system can be characterized as a function that is composed with itself over and over again. For example, consider the function f(x) = −x 3 . If we compose f with itself, then we get
$${f^2}(x) = (f \circ f)(x) = - {( - {x^3})^3} = {x^9}.$$

## Keywords

Significant Digit Initial Population Logistic Function Phase Portrait Exponential Model
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.