The Effect of Exchangeable Sodium and Electrolyte Concentration on Crust Formation

  • I. Shainberg
Part of the Advances in Soil Science book series (SOIL, volume 1)


The formation of crust at the soil surface, especially due to the action of rain drops but also as a result of sprinkler irrigation (Aarstad and Miller, 1973), is a common feature of many soils, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions. Surface crusts are thin (>2–3 mm) and are characterized by greater density, finer pores, and lower saturated conductivity than the underlying soil. Soil crusts have a prominent effect on many soil phenomena, e.g. the reduction of infiltration and increase in runoff (Cary and Evans, 1974; Hillel, 1980; Hillel and Gardner, 1969, 1970; Morin et al., 1981; Parr and Bertrand, 1960), slowing of the soil-atmosphere gas exchange (Domby and Kohnke, 1956), and interference with seed germination (Frelich et al., 1973; Hanks and Thorpe, 1957; Sale and Harrison, 1964; Taylor, 1962).


Electrolyte Concentration Infiltration Rate Sandy Loam Soil Soil Crust Crust Formation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Shainberg
    • 1
  1. 1.The Volcani CenterInstitute of Soils and Water, AROBet DaganIsrael

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