Hepatocellular Carcinoma Markers

  • Stewart Sell
Part of the Contemporary Biomedicine book series (CB, volume 2)


Primary hepatocellular carcinomas (PHC) are derived from parenchymal liver cells. Since the liver is the major metabolic factory of the body, a number of products of the abnormal cells of PHC are potential diagnostic markers. However, because PHC has such a relatively low incidence in the United States, markers for PHC have not attracted as much clinical attention in North America as those for some other cancers, such as lung, breast, or gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, there is a wide range in incidence of PHC in different parts of the world (Szmuness, 1978). In the United States, the incidence in autopsy studies ranges from 0.2 to 0.6% (Hoyne and Kernohan, 1947; MacDonald, 1957; Mosher, 1960; Patton and Horn, 1964; San Jose et al., 1965) with evidence for an increasing incidence from 0.17% during the period 1918–1953, toO.96% in 1964–1973 as determined at the University of Southern California Medical Center (Peters, 1976). In Europe, the incidence ranges from approximately 0.25% in Germany to 1.65% in France (Szmuness, 1978).


Hepatocellular Carcinoma Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Porphyria Cutanea Tarda Serum Glutamic Oxalacetic Transaminase Cytosine Arabinoside 
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© HUMANA Press Inc. 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stewart Sell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of California Medical SchoolSan Diego, La JollaUSA

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