Biological and environmental impacts of the insecticides malathion and parathion on nontarget biota in aquatic ecosystems

  • Mir S. Mulla
  • Lal S. Mian
Conference paper
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 78)


Pesticides-nontarget biota interactions are quite complex, requiring detailed analysis and critical interpretations. The effects of pesticides may be direct, resulting in the die-off and reduction in the numbers of the affected organisms in a short period of time. Another impact commonly encountered in the use of pesticides on nontarget organisms is that leading to secondary effects. These effects are visible after some period of time after exposure. The complete or partial impact of pesticides on the population of one species may lead to the imbalance of other interacting units of the ecosystem. Depending upon the severity and magnitude of these disruptions, there is always a tendency in the dynamics of the various components to return to their prestress state. The secondary effects could manifest themselves in a number of ways such as decreased density and intraspecific competition, emigration, recolonization, and in changes in diversity of the species in the system. Secondary effects may also result from pesticide-induced changes of the target species such as the development of resistance, necessitating higher dosages of a pesticide and thus disrupting the general homeostasis of the ecosystem.


Aquatic Habitat Striped Bass Blue Crab Mosquito Control Fathead Minnow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mir S. Mulla
  • Lal S. Mian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

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