Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: Reentry field data—a recapitulation

  • Yutaka Iwata
Conference paper
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 75)


The occupational exposure of field workers to postapplication insecticide residues in the agricultural setting is referred to as the “reentry problem.” This problem is associated with illnesses precipitated by excessive Cholinesterase depression resulting from exposure to and consequent absorption of persisting residues of the organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic alteration products. The problem is not new. It came into existence hand-in-hand with the introduction in the early 1950s of organophosphorus insecticides into agriculture. The carbamate insecticides have received less emphasis since Cholinesterase inhibition is reversible with these compounds and, consequently, the problem can disappear before it can be unambiguously established for a field population. In addition to protecting workers from acute exposure, the question of health effects arising from chronic exposure also needs to be addressed. This considerably broadens the definition of the reentry problem and encompasses all insecticides since the potential exists that they may be teratogenic, oncogenic, or mutagenic or cause specific problems such as sterility or nerve damage. Information is needed which can be used to assess the potential hazards, if any, that workers are exposed to under actual field conditions, then to mitigate, or somehow compensate for, these hazards.


Residue Level Soil Dust Dermal Exposure Organophosphorus Insecticide Orange Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, J. D., Y. Iwata, and F. A. Gunther: Worker environment research. IV. The effects of soil dust derived from several soil types on the dissipation of parathion and paraoxon dislodgable residues on citrus foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 547 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gunther, F. A., B. Berck, and Y. Iwata: Rapid field measurements of organophosphorus pesticide residues. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under contract R805 642–01 (1980).Google Scholar
  3. Gunther, Y. Iwata, G. E. Carman, and C. A. Smith: The citrus reentry problem: Research on its causes and effects, and approaches to its minimization. Residue Reviews 67, 1 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Iwata, Y., G. E. Carman, and F. A. Gunther: Worker environment research: Methidathion applied to orange trees. J. Agr. Food Chem. 27, 119 (1979 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Iwata, Y., J. R. O’Neal, J. H. Barkley, and F. A. Gunther: Phenthoate applied to California citrus trees; Worker environment research and residue levels in and on fruit, unpublished results (1979 b).Google Scholar
  6. Iwata, M. E. Düsgh, and F. A. Gunther: Unpublished results (1979 c).Google Scholar
  7. Iwata, Y., G. E. Carman, and F. A. Gunther: Worker environment research: Residues of carbaryl, chlorobenzilate, dimethoate and trichlorfon applied to citrus trees. J. Agr. Food Chem. 27, 1141 (1979 d).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iwata, J. B. Knaak, R. C. Spear, and R. J. Foster: Worker reentry into pesticide-treated crops. I. Procedure for the determination of dislodgable pesticide residues on foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18, 649 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kvalvåg, J., D. E. Ott, and F. A. Gunther: Liquid chromatographic determination of azinphos methyl oxon in foliar dislodgeable residues and in soil surface dusts from an azinphos methyl-treated orange grove. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chemists 60, 911 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. Popendorf, W. J., R. C. Spear, and S. Selvin: Collecting foliar pesticide residues related to potential airborne exposure of workers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 583 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Spencer, W. F., Y. Iwata, W. W. Kilgore, and J. B. Knaak: Worker reentry into pesticide-treated crops. II. Procedures for the determination of pesticide residues on the soil surface. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18, 656 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Westlake, W. E., F. A. Gunther, and G. E. Carman: Worker environment research: Dioxathion (Delnav) residues on and in orange fruits and leaves, in dislodgable particulate matter, and in the soil beneath sprayed trees. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1, 60 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wiswesser, W. J. (ed.): Pesticide index ( 5th ed. ). College Park, MD: Entomological Society of America (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yutaka Iwata
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations