Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: Closed systems and worker safety

  • G. E. Carman
Conference paper
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 75)


It has long been recognized that the handling of pesticide materials while preparing spray mixtures can be a primary source of worker exposure in field operations. The means most commonly relied upon to minimize such exposures include precautionary warnings on the label and suggestions or requirements for the use of protective clothing or skin coverings, eye shields, and respirators. While effective to the extent that such safety guidelines and provisions are carefully observed and unfailingly used, worker judgments against the need for certain protective measures and the universal tendency to reject inconvenience have resulted in a continuance of poisoning cases related to such work activities. In California, physicians’ reports analyzed by the State Department of Health and the State Department of Food and Agriculture (1974) show that during the early seventies mixing and loading, in relation to other work activities predisposing to pesticide exposures, were among the categories of activity sustaining the highest incidence of serious exposures exceeded only by the involvements of ground applicators as a grouping at risk.


Closed System California Department Cyanic Acid Poisoning Case Wettable Powder 
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  1. California Administrative Code: Worker Safety, Article 23. Economic Poisons, Group 2. Chemistry, Subchapter 1. Plant Industry, Chapter 4. Agriculture, Title 3. May 9 (1974).Google Scholar
  2. California Administrative Code: Pesticide Worker Safety, Article 23. Economic Poison, Group 2. Chemistry, Subchapter 1. Plant Industry, Chapter 4. Agriculture, Title 3. Feb. 5 (1979).Google Scholar
  3. California Department of Health and California Department of Food and Agriculture: Mimeographed summary: “Pesticides most often reported by physicians in California as causes of illness in employed persons in 1972 and 1973” (1974).Google Scholar
  4. Carman, G. E., and R. L. Metcalf: Safe handling of parathion, TEPP, and other organic phosphorus insecticides with reference to use on citrus in California. Citrograph 37, 6 (1951).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. E. Carman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

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