Advertisement

Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: Cholinesterase determination and organophosphorus poisoning

  • M. Vandekar
Conference paper
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 75)

Abstract

In most instances Cholinesterase determination in people is carried out either: (1) as part of a surveillance procedure to prevent poisoning in people exposed to organophosphorus compounds or (2) as a diagnostic tool to exclude or confirm that symptoms or signs observed in people are caused by anticholinesterase compounds.

Keywords

Cholinesterase Activity Organophosphorus Compound Plasma Cholinesterase Carbamate Insecticide Plasma Cholinesterase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldridge, W. N., and E. Reiner: Enzyme inhibitors as substrates, p. 328. Amsterdam-London: North-Holland (1972).Google Scholar
  2. Arnan, A.: Experience in the WHO field programme for evaluating the safety of new insecticides. Bull. World Health Org. 44, 273 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Augustinsson, K.-B.: The normal variation of human blood Cholinesterase activity. Acta Physiol. Scand. 35, 40 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augustinsson, K.-B.: Determination of activity of cholinesterases. In D. Glick (ed.): Methods of biochemical analysis, suppl. vol. Analysis of biogenic amines and their related enzymes, pp. 217–273. New York: Interscience (1971).Google Scholar
  5. Augustinsson, H. Eriksson, and Y. Faijersson: A new approach to determining Cholinesterase activities in samples of whole blood. Clin. Chim. Acta 89, 239 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Augustinsson, and B. Holmstedt: Determination of Cholinesterase in blood samples dried on filter-paper and its practical application. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 17, 573 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edson, E. F.: Blood tests for users of OP insecticides. World Crops 10, 49 (1958).Google Scholar
  8. Ellman, G. L., K. D. Courtey, V. Andres, Jr., and R. M. Featherstone: A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem. Pharmacol. 7, 88 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Groff, W. A., A. Kaminskis, and R. I. Ellin: Interconversion of Cholinesterase enzyme activity units by the manual ApH method and a recommended automated method. Clin. Toxicol. 9, 353 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Holmstedt, B.: Simple microcentrifuge for use in the field. Science 149, 977 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holmstedt, B.: Distribution and determination of eholinesterases in mammals. Bull. World Health Org. 44, 99 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Holmstedt, and J. L. Oudart: Mesure de l’activité eholinestérasique plasmatique sur le terrain au moyen d’un papier test. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 59, 411 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Long, K. R.: Cholinesterase activity as a biological indicator of exposure to pesti-sides. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 36, 75 1975 ).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Michel, O. H.: An electrometric method for the determination of red blood cell and plasma Cholinesterase activity. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 34, 1564 (1949).Google Scholar
  15. Namba, T.: Cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus compounds and its clinical effects. Bull. World Health Org. 44, 289 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Oudart, J. L., and B. Holmstedt: Determination of plasma Cholinesterase activity by means of a test paper and its use in the field. Arch. Toxicol. 27, 1 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Permanent Commission and International Association on Occupational Health, Subcommittee on Pesticides: Epidemiological toxicology of pesticide exposure. Report of an international workshop. Arch. Environ. Health 25, 399 (1972).Google Scholar
  18. Permanent Commission and International Association on Occupational Health, Subcommittee on Pesticides: Field worker exposure during pesticide application. Report of an international workshop, K. Jager (ed.). ( In press.) Amsterdam: Elsivier (1980).Google Scholar
  19. Plesitna, R.: Nasa iskustva u primjeni Acholest-metode za odredivanje aktivnosti kolinesteraze plazme covjeka (Our experience in applying acholest method for the determination of human plasma Cholinesterase activity). Arh. hig. rada 17, 291 (1966).Google Scholar
  20. Popendorf, W. J., and J. T. Leffingwell: Natural variations in the decay and oxidation of parathion foliar residues. J. Agr. Food Chem. 26, 437 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ramussen, W. A., J. A. Jensen, W. J. Stein, and W. J. Hayes, Jr.: Toxicological studies of DDVP for disinsection of aircraft. Aerospace Med. 34, 593 (1963).Google Scholar
  22. Reiner, E., A. Buntic, M. Trdak, and V. Simeon: Effect of temperature on the activity of human blood eholinesterases. Arch. Toxicol. 32, 347 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Richterich, R.: Bestimmung der Serumcholinesterase mit Hilfe eines Indikatorpapiers. Schweiz, med. Wschr. 92, 263 (1962).Google Scholar
  24. Sailer, S., and H. Braunsteiner: Über eine neue, sehr einfache Methode zur Bestimmung der Serumcholinesterase Activitat und ihre Klinische Bedeutung. Klin. Wschr. 37, 986 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Simeon, V.: Metode za odredivanje aktivnosti kolinesteraza (Methods of estimating Cholinesterase activity). Arch. hig. rada 18, 383 (1967).Google Scholar
  26. Stubbs, J. L., and J. T. Fales: A capillary sampling technique for the determination of Cholinesterase activity in red cells and plasma. Amer. J. Med. Technol. 26, 25 (1960).Google Scholar
  27. Skrinjaric-Spoljar, M., V. Simeon, and E. Reiner: Spontaneous reactivation of dimethylphosphorylated acetylcholinesterase and Cholinesterase. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 315, 363 (1973).Google Scholar
  28. Vandekar, M.: Observations on the toxicity of carbaryl, folithion and 3-isopropyl- phenyl N-methylcarbamate in a village-scale trial in southern Nigeria. Bull. World Health Org. 33, 107 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Vandekar, M.: Monitoring of Cholinesterase activity in people exposed to insecticides during WHO trials. Unpublished mimeographed WHO document WHO/VBC/75.603 (1975).Google Scholar
  30. Vandekar, M., R. Plestina, and K. Wilhelm: Toxicity of carbamates for mammals. Bull. World Health Org. 44, 241 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Vandekar M., and B. Svetlicic: Observations on the toxicity of three anticholinesterase insecticides in a village scale trial and comparison of methods used for determining Cholinesterase activity. Arh. hig. rada 17, 135 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Watson, W. A., and E. F. Edson: The Tintometer Limited field Cholinesterase kit: Improvement in technique. Mimeographed report No. TOX/115, Med. Dept, Chesterford Park Station, Saffron Waiden, Essex, England (1964).Google Scholar
  33. Wilhelm, K.: Determination of human plasma Cholinesterase activity by adapted Ellmans method. Arh. hig. rada 19, 199 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilhelm, K.: Letter to WHO “Spectrophotometric kit for ChE determination,” Jan. 8 (1980).Google Scholar
  35. Wilhelm, K., and E. Reiner: Effect of sample storage on human blood Cholinesterase activity after inhibition by carbamates. Bull. World Health Org. 48, 235 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilhelm, K., M. Vandekar, and E. Reiner: Comparison of methods for measuring Cholinesterase inhibition by carbamates. Bull. World Health Org. 48, 41 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Winteringham, F. P. W., and R. W. Disney: A simple method for estimating blood Cholinesterase. Lab. Pract. 13, 739 (1964).Google Scholar
  38. Witter, R. F.: Measurement of blood Cholinesterase. Arch. Environ. Health 6, 537 (1963).Google Scholar
  39. World Health Organization: Safe use of pesticides in public health: Sixteenth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides. World Health Org. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 356 (1967).Google Scholar
  40. World Health Organization: Safe use of pesticides: Twentieth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides. World Health Org. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 513 (1973).Google Scholar
  41. World Health Organization: Spectrophotometric kit for measuring Cholinesterase activity. Unpublished mimeographed WHO document WHO/VBC/78.692 (1978).Google Scholar
  42. World Health Organization: Safe use of pesticides: Third report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. World Health Org. Tech. Rep. Ser. No. 634 (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Vandekar
    • 1
  1. 1.Pesticide Development and Safe Use, Division of Vector Biology and ControlWorld Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations