Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: Techniques for establishing safe levels of foliar residues

  • James B. Knaak
Conference paper
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 75)


Field workers hand harvesting, stripping, thinning, disbudding, pruning, and pinching crops come into contact with toxic organophosphate residues on foliage. These residues inhibit Cholinesterase activity, causing dizziness, pinpoint pupils, nausea, headache, and other symptoms which, if severe enough, lead to hospitalization and/or loss of work. To reduce these hazards, the California Department of Agriculture in 1971 established reentry intervals for 16 organophosphate1 insecticides. This list has been expanded over the last eight years to include 21 organophosphate insecticides used on vine and tree fruits as indicated in Table I.


Cholinesterase Inhibition Safe Level Methyl Parathion California Department Dermal Absorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, U. K., and A. S. Asmundson: Scaleless. An inherited ectodermal defect in the domestic fowl. J. Hered. 68, 63 (1957).Google Scholar
  2. Abou-Donia, M. B., D. G. Graham, P. R. Timmons, and B. L. Reichert: Delayed neurotoxic and late acute effects of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on the hen: Effect of route of administration. Neurotoxicol. in press (1980).Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, J. B., D. Mengle, and D. H. Flaherty: Pesticide residues on grape leaves evaluated for adverse effects on grape pickers as related to worker reentry periods. Unpublished report (1972).Google Scholar
  4. CIBA-GEIGY: Toxicology data bulletin for Supracide, Ardsley, NY (no date).Google Scholar
  5. Craine, E. M.: The disposition of phosalone-C14 applied to the skin of pigs. Hess & Clark, Division of Rhodia Inc., Ashland, OH. Unpublished report (1973).Google Scholar
  6. Gaines, T. B.: The acute toxicity of pesticides to rats. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol. 2, 88 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gaines, T.B.: Acute toxicity of pesticides. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol. 14, 515 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Geller, I., W. C. Stebbins, and M. J. Wayner: Test methods for definition of effects of toxic substances on behavior and neuromotor function. Neurobehavioral Toxicol. 1, supplement (1979).Google Scholar
  9. Goldberg, M. E., H. E. Johnson, J. B. Knaak, and H. F. Smyth: Psychopharmaco-logical effects of reversible Cholinesterase inhibition induced by N-methyl-3-isopropylphenylcarbamate (compound 10854). J. Pharm. Exper. Therapeut. 141, 244(1963).Google Scholar
  10. Gunther, F. A., W. E. Westlake, J. H. Barkely, W. Winterlin, and L. Langbehn: Establishing dislodgeable pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9, 243 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gunther, F.A., J. H. Barkely, and W. E. Westlake: Worker environment research. II. Sampling and processing techniques for determining dislodgeable pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 641 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gunther, F.A.,Y. Iwata, G. E. Carman, and C. A. Smith: The citrus reentry problem: Research on its causes and effects, and approaches to its minimization. Residue Reviews 67, (1977).Google Scholar
  13. Gunther, F. A., Y. Iwata, E. Papadopoulou, B. Berck, and C. A. Smith: Rapid field method for estimating organophosphorus insecticide residues on crop foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24, 903 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hiscock, D. R.: Phosalone. An investigation of the distribution and penetration characteristics in rat and sheep skin. May and Baker Ltd., Dagenham, Essex, England. Unpublished report (1967).Google Scholar
  15. Iwata, Y., G. E. Carman, and F. A. Gunther: Worker environment research: Methidathion applied to orange trees. J. Agr. Food Chem. 27, 119 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kahn, E.: Outline guide for performance of field studies to establish safe reentry intervals for organophosphate pesticides. Residue Reviews 70, 27 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Knaak, J. B., K. T. Maddy, M. A. Gallo, D. T. Lillie, E. M. Craine, and W. F. Serat: Worker reentry study involving phosalone application to citrus groves. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol. 46, 363 (1978 a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Knaak, J. B., S. A. Peoples, T. J. Jackson, A. S. Fredrickson, R. Enos, K. T. Maddy, J. Blair Bailey, M. E. Dusch, F. A. Gunther, and W. L. Winterlin: Reentry programs involving the use of dialifor on grapes in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 7, 465 (1978 b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knaak, J. B., EPA medical protocol meetings. San Francisco, CA (1978 c).Google Scholar
  20. Knaak, J.B., P. Schlocker, C. R. Ackerman, and J. N. Seiber: Reentry research. Establishment of safe pesticide levels on foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24, 796(1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maibach, H.: Animal models in dermatology, p. 103, Edinburgh, London and N.Y.: Churchill Livingstone (1975).Google Scholar
  22. Maibach, H., R. J. Feldmann, T. H. Milby, and W. F. Serat: Regional variation in percutaneous penetration in man. Arch. Environ. Health 23, 208 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mazuret, L. J.: Phosalone, methyl-azinphos and parathion acute percutaneous toxicity in the rat. Unpublished report (1971).Google Scholar
  24. Milby, T. H. (Chairman): Occupational exposure to pesticides. Federal Working Group on Pesticide Management, Washington, D.C. (1974).Google Scholar
  25. Milby, T. H., F. Ottoboni, and H. W. Mitchell: Parathion residue poisoning among orchard workers. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 189, 351 (1964).Google Scholar
  26. Popendorf, W. J., R. C. Spear, J. T. Leffingwell, J. Yager, and E. Kahn: Harvester exposure to Zolone (phosalone) residues in peach orchard. J. Occup. Med. 21, 189 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Richabds, D. M., J. F. Kraus, P. Kurtz, N. O. Borhani, R. Mull, W. Winterlin, and W. W. Kilgore: A controlled field trial of physiological responses to organophosphate residues in farm workers. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. 2, 493 (1978).Google Scholar
  28. Serat, W. F.: Calculation of safe reentry time into an orchard treated with a pesticide chemical which produces a measurable physiological response. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1, 170 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spear, R. C, D. L. Jenkins, and T. H. Melby: Pesticide residues and field workers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 308 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Spear, R. C, W. J. Popendorf, J. T. Leffingwell, T. H. Milby, J. E. Davies, and W. F. Spencer: Field workers’ response to weathered residues of parathion. J. Occup. Med. 19, 406 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Westlake, W. E., F. A. Gunther, and G. E. Carman: Worker environment research: Dioxathion (Delnav) residues on and in orange fruits and leaves, in dislodgeable particulate matter, and in the soil beneath sprayed trees. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1, 60 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wilson, B. W., C. M. Cisson, W. R. Randall, J.E. Woodrow, J. N. Seeber, and J. B. Knaak: Organophosphate risk assessment: Field testing of DEF with the scaleless chicken. BuD. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24, 921 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • James B. Knaak
    • 1
  1. 1.California Department of Food and AgricultureSacramentoUSA

Personalised recommendations