Advertisement

Minimizing occupational exposure to pesticides: Federal reentry standards for farm workers (present and proposed)

  • Gunter Zweig
  • James D. Adams
  • Jerome Blondell
Conference paper
Part of the Residue Reviews book series (RECT, volume 75)

Abstract

A reentry standard could be defined as a regulatory measure instituted to limit the exposure of field workers to toxic pesticide residues upon entering previously treated agricultural areas. Included in this definition are (1) those measures designed to reduce the transfer of the toxic residues to the workers, and (2) those measures designed to reduce the residues available for exposure of the workers. Within the first group are protective clothing, gloves, respirators, dust masks, hats, and any other mechanical barriers between the applicator and the pesticide as applied. Within the second group are reentry intervals, spraying of foliage with water, closed system applications, and other means to reduce the pesticide residues. This paper is concerned mainly with reentry intervals.

Keywords

Pesticide Residue Farm Worker Protective Clothing Organophosphorus Insecticide Dislodgeable Residue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. California Administrative Code, Article 23, Jan. 4 (1979).Google Scholar
  2. Feldman, R. J., and H. I. Maibach: Percutaneous penetration of some pesticides and herbicides in man. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol. 28, 126 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gunther, F. A., W. E. Westlake, J. H. Barkley, W. Winterlin, and L. Langbehn: Establishing dislodgeable pesticide residues on leaf surfaces. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 9, 243 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gunther, F. A., Y. Iwata, G. E. Carman, and C. A. Smith: The citrus reentry problem: Research on its causes and effects, and approaches to its minimization. Residue Reviews 67, 1 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Iwata, Y., J. B. Knaak, R. C. Spear, and R. J. Foster: Worker reentry into pesticide treated crops. I. Procedures for the determination of dislodgeable residues on foliage. Bull. Environ. Contain. Toxicol. 18, 649 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Maddy, K. T.: Worker reentry safety. IV. The position of the California Department of Food and Agriculture on pesticide reentry safety intervals. Residue Reviews 62, 9 (1975).Google Scholar
  7. Milby, T. H. (Chairman): Occupational exposure to pesticides. Report to the Federal Working Group on Pest Management from the Task Group on Occupational Exposure to Pesticides. Chapt. IV, Pesticide legislation and administrative regulations, p. 51. Washington, DC. Federal Working Group on Pest Management (dissolved), now EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs (Jan. 1974).Google Scholar
  8. Paynter, O. E.: Worker reentry safety. III. Viewpoint and program of the Environmental Protection Agency. Residue Reviews 62, 13 (1975).Google Scholar
  9. Peoples, S. A., and K. T. Maddy: Organophosphate pesticide poisoning. West. J. Med. 129, 273 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Popendorf, W. J.: Exploring citrus harvesters’ exposure to pesticide contaminated foliar dust. Submitted J. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. (1980).Google Scholar
  11. Popendorf, W. J., R. C. Spear, and S. Selvin: Collecting foliar pesticide residues related to potential airborne exposure of workers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 583 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Popendorf, W. J., Popendorf, W. J., J. T. Leffingwell, J. Yager, and E. Kahn: Harvester exposure to zolone (phosalone) residues in peach orchards. J. Occupat. Med. 21, 189 (1979).Google Scholar
  13. Serat, W. F.: Calculation of a safe reentry time into an orchard treated with a pesticide chemical which produces a measurable physiological response. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 1, 170 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Serat, W. F.: Estimating a worker entry interval for the carbamate pesticide Furadan 4F insecticide. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 7, 1 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Serat, W. F. and J. B. Bailey: Estimating the relative toxicological potential of each pesticide in a mixture of residues on foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 682 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Serat, W. F., D. C. Mengle, H. P. Anderson, E. Kahn, and J. B. Bailey: On the estimation of worker entry intervals into pesticide treated fields with and without the exposures of human subjects. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13, 506 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Smith, C. A., F. A. GUnther, and J. D. Adams: Worker reentry research. III. A rapid method for the semi-quantitative determination of some dislodgeable pesticide residues on citrus foliage. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 305 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Spear, R. C., W. J. Popendorf, J. T. Leffingwell, and D. L. Jenkins: Parathion residues on citrus foliage. Decay and composition as related to worker hazard. J. Agr. Food Chem. 23, 808 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Spear, R. C., Y. Lee, J. T. Leffingwell, and D. Jenkins: Conversion of parathion to paraoxon in foliar residues. Effects of dust level and ozone concentration. J. Agr. Food Chem. 26, 434 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Emergency temporary standard for exposure to organophosphorous pesticides. Fed. Register 38 (83), 10715 (May 1, 1973).Google Scholar
  21. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Emergency temporary standard for exposure to organophosphorous pesticides. Fed. Register 38 (125), 17211 (June 29, 1973).Google Scholar
  22. U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division: Waiver of child labor provisions for agricultural employment of 10- and 11-year-old minors in hand harvesting of short season crops; provisions governing application for and granting of a waiver; restrictions on use of pesticides and other chemicals. Fed. Register 44 (80), 24058 (April 24, 1979).Google Scholar
  23. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Farm workers dealing with pesticides. Proposed health and safety standards. Fed. Register 39 (48), 9457 (March 11, 1974).Google Scholar
  24. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Worker protection standards for agricultural pesticides. Restatement of certain existing standards. Fed. Register 39 (92), 16888 (May 10, 1974).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gunter Zweig
    • 1
  • James D. Adams
    • 1
  • Jerome Blondell
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyUSA

Personalised recommendations