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Genes and Proteins of the Influenza Viruses

  • Robert A. Lamb
Chapter
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

This chapter describes the structure of the genes of influenza A, B, and C viruses Influenza viruses contain a segmented single-stranded RNA genome that has been called negative stranded because the viral messenger RNA (mRNAs) are transcribed from the viral RNA segments. A great deal of new knowledge has been obtained about influenza A, B, and C viruses, since the last major multiauthored reviews of the genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology of influenza viruses (Palese and Kingsbury, 1983). The complete nucleotide sequence of the 8 RNA segments of the influenza A and B viruses has been obtained, and significant progress has been made with the sequencing of the influenza C virus genome. Other major developments include the following:
  1. 1.

    The three-dimensional structure of both major surface antigens, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, has been determined from X-ray studies of crystallized proteins, and the structure of a neuraminidase—antibody complex has been obtained. In addition, the structure of the influenza virus hemagglutinin complexed with its receptor sialic acid has been elucidated, which may provide a basis for the rational design of antiviral drugs that would block viral attachment to cells.

     
  2. 2.

    In both influenza A and B viruses, previously unrecognized small integral membrane proteins, M2 and NB, respectively, have been identified and extensively characterized.

     
  3. 3.

    The influenza A virus N9 neuraminidase has also been found to exhibit hemagglutinating activity.

     
  4. 4.

    Influenza C virus glycoprotein exhibits both hemagglutinating and neuraminate-O-acetyl esterase activity.

     

Keywords

Influenza Virus Human Influenza Virus Polymerase Acidic Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Influenza Virus Neuraminidase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Lamb
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell BiologyNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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