Genes and Proteins of the Influenza Viruses

  • Robert A. Lamb
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)


This chapter describes the structure of the genes of influenza A, B, and C viruses Influenza viruses contain a segmented single-stranded RNA genome that has been called negative stranded because the viral messenger RNA (mRNAs) are transcribed from the viral RNA segments. A great deal of new knowledge has been obtained about influenza A, B, and C viruses, since the last major multiauthored reviews of the genetics, molecular biology, and structural biology of influenza viruses (Palese and Kingsbury, 1983). The complete nucleotide sequence of the 8 RNA segments of the influenza A and B viruses has been obtained, and significant progress has been made with the sequencing of the influenza C virus genome. Other major developments include the following:
  1. 1.

    The three-dimensional structure of both major surface antigens, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, has been determined from X-ray studies of crystallized proteins, and the structure of a neuraminidase—antibody complex has been obtained. In addition, the structure of the influenza virus hemagglutinin complexed with its receptor sialic acid has been elucidated, which may provide a basis for the rational design of antiviral drugs that would block viral attachment to cells.

  2. 2.

    In both influenza A and B viruses, previously unrecognized small integral membrane proteins, M2 and NB, respectively, have been identified and extensively characterized.

  3. 3.

    The influenza A virus N9 neuraminidase has also been found to exhibit hemagglutinating activity.

  4. 4.

    Influenza C virus glycoprotein exhibits both hemagglutinating and neuraminate-O-acetyl esterase activity.



Influenza Virus Human Influenza Virus Polymerase Acidic Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Influenza Virus Neuraminidase 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Lamb
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell BiologyNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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