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Structure of Defective-Interfering RNAs of Influenza Viruses and Their Role in Interference

  • Debi P. Nayak
  • Thomas M. Chambers
  • Ramesh K. Akkina
Chapter
Part of the The Viruses book series (VIRS)

Abstract

When viruses are passaged at high multiplicity, defective interfering (DI) particles are produced. von Magnus (1947, 1951a-c, 1952, 1954) first observed this phenomenon when he serially passaged undiluted influenza viruses in embryonated chicken eggs. He noted that although both the total amount of virus particles as assayed by hemagglutination units (HAU) and the amount of infectious particles as assayed by egg infectivity titer (EID50) decreased, the ratio of infectivity to total particles (EID50/HAU) decreased much more precipitously during the passages at high multiplicity of infection (MOI). Clearly, during the undiluted passages, many particles were produced that were noninfectious. Subsequently, this phenomenon of multiplicity-dependent production of noninfectious virus particles has been reported with almost all animal viruses studied to date. Indeed, formation of such particles has also been observed for plant, yeast, and bacterial viruses (Kane et al., 1979; Mills et al., 1967) and probably represents a general phenomenon for all viruses. Later these noninfectious particles were called defective interfering (DI) particles in order to describe their proper phenotypic characteristics (Huang and Baltimore, 1970).

Keywords

Influenza Virus Polymerase Gene Sendai Virus Virus Preparation Polymerase Complex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations used in this chapter

cDNA

complementary DNA

CEF

chicken embryo fibroblast cells

cRNA

complementary RNA

DI

defective interfering

DIU

defective interfering unit

DNI

defective noninterfering

EID50

egg infectious dose (50%)

HA

hemagglutinin

HAU

hemagglutinating unit

HI

hemagglutination inhibition

M

membrane protein

MDBK

Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells

MDCK

Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

MOI

multiplicity of infection

mRNA

messenger RNA

N

nucleoprotein

NA

neuraminidase

NDI

nondefective interfering

NP

nucleoprotein

NS

nonstructural protein

PAGE

polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PFU

plaque-forming units

Pi

postinfection

poly(A)

3′ polyadenosine

RNP

ribonucleoprotein

UV

ultraviolet

vRNA

viral RNA

VSV

vesicular stomatitis virus

WSN

Wilson-Smith neurotropic

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Debi P. Nayak
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Chambers
    • 2
  • Ramesh K. Akkina
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer CenterUCLA School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Virology and Molecular BiologySt. Jude Children’s Research HospitalMemphisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary MedicineColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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