Cereal Milling and Flour Production for Flat Breads

  • Jalal Qarooni


Construction of new tools for the cultivation and utilization of cereal grains in ancient times provided a surplus of products and eased the path toward development of advanced tools. As early as Aurignocian times, 75,000 years ago, the tools for cereal grinding were round stones, about 3 to 4 cm thick and 7 to 9 cm in diameter, rubbed against flat stones in either a back-and-forth or circular motion. Use of mortars for grinding reflected a marked advancement in grinding tools. Figure 2.1 shows the motions used with early milling tools. Figure 2.2 illustrates sets of communal grinding stone systems from southern Arizona and Malta in the Mediterranean (Storck and Teague, 1952).


Wheat Flour Rice Flour Break Roll Bread Quality Cereal Chemist 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jalal Qarooni
    • 1
  1. 1.HarrisburgUSA

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