Double-Layered Flat Breads

  • Jalal Qarooni


Arabic bread is a name commonly given to a double-layered flat bread produced in the Middle East and North Africa. “Pita” is a modern Greek term used in Greece, Cyprus, Europe, and the United States for the same product. Lebanese, mafrood, and shami are among other terms for essentially the same product. For the production of Arabic bread, the ingredients, flour of 75% to 80% extraction (100%), dry active yeast (0.5% to 1.0%), salt (0.75% to 1.5%), and water are mixed to form a cohesive and well-developed dough. The dough of Arabic bread is relatively stiff. Abdel-Rahman and Yousef (1978) adjusted the dough consistency of this bread on 800 BU in a farinograph bowl. A farinograph dough consistency of 850 BU was used by Qarooni et al (1987) elfter investigating the effect of water addition on bread quality. Dough was prepared with seven levels of water: 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, and 61% (Table 5.1). Dough consistency above the 850 BU level improved sheeting quality and resulted in round, larger, and thinner dough with a less dimpled surface compared to dough with high water addition. However, the baked loaves had a darker crust color and tended to break during a rolling test.


Starch Granule Starch Gelatinization Bread Quality Yellow Index Dough Sample 
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Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jalal Qarooni
    • 1
  1. 1.HarrisburgUSA

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