Insulin, Oral Agents, and Monitoring Techniques

  • Charles M. Peterson
  • Lois Jovanovic
Part of the Developments in Nephrology book series (DINE, volume 9)


In the normal individual, glucose is perhaps the metabolic substrate least subject to deviation from the “norm.” This metabolite is highly regulated and has minimal alternatives for metabolic conversion. Glucose may be entered into enzymatic degradation through glycolysis, glycogen formation, or the pentose shunt. In general, the initial enzyme steps in these reactions are rate-limiting and, therefore, they have little influence on substrate concentration. Gluconate and sorbitol pathways are also possible, although these latter pathways have high km values and therefore probably play a small role in biology during periods of extremely high glucose concentrations. Another alternative to substrate utilization of glucose is through the nonenzymatic glycosylation of proteins. These reactions, known as the Maillard Reaction, occur in two forms: (1) nonenzymatic glycosylation and (2) nonenzymatic browning resulting from rearranged products of the glycosylation reaction itself.


Blood Glucose Blood Glucose Level Oral Agent Monitoring Technique Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion 
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Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, Boston 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles M. Peterson
  • Lois Jovanovic

There are no affiliations available

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