Advertisement

Oncogenes in human neoplasms

  • G. M. Cooper
Chapter
  • 42 Downloads
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 32)

Abstract

The biologic activity of tumor DNA, detected by transfection of NIH 3T3 mouse cells, has led to the identification of transforming genes which are activated in a variety of human and animal neoplasms. The DNA of many tumors efficiently induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. In contrast, the DNA of normal cells lacks efficient transforming activity, even the normal DNA of the same individual animals or patients whose tumor DNA induces transformation. These findings imply that the development of many neoplasms involves dominant genetic alterations leading to activation of transforming genes, which are then detectable by their biologic activity in this gene transfer assay.

Keywords

Transferrin Receptor Burkitt Lymphoma Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Transforming Gene Transferrin Family 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Cooper GM and Neiman PE (1980). Transforming genes of neoplasms induced by avian lymphoid leukosis viruses. Nature 287: 656–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Krontiris TG and Cooper GM (1981). Transforming activity of human tumor DNAs. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 78: 1181–1184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shih C, Padhy LC, Murray M and Weinberg RA (1981). Transforming genes of carcinomas and neuroblastomas introduced into mouse fibroblasts. Nature 290: 261–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Der CJ, Krontiris TG and Cooper GM (1982). Transforming genes of human bladder and lung carcinoma cell lines are homologous to the ras genes of Harvey and Kirsten sarcoma viruses. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 79: 3637–3640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parada LF, Tabin CJ, Shih C and Weinberg RA (1982). Human EJ bladder carcinoma oncogene is homologue of Harvey sarcoma virus ras gene. Nature 297: 474–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Santos E, Tronick SR, Aaronson SA et al. (1982). T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene is an activated form of the normal human homologue of BALB–and Harvey–msv transforming genes. Nature 298: 343–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hall A, Marshall CJ, Spun NK and Weiss RA (1983). Identification of transforming gene in two human sarcoma cell lines as a new member of the ras gene family located on chromosome 1. Nature 303: 396–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shimizu K, Goldfarb M, Perucho M and Wigler M (1983). Isolation and preliminary characterization of the transforming gene of a human neuroblastoma cell line. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 80: 383–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Albino AP, LeStrange R, Oliff AI et al. (1984). Transforming ras genes from human melanoma: A manifestation of tumour heterogeneity? Nature 308: 69–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lane M-A, Sainten A and Cooper GM (1982). Stage-specific transforming genes of human and mouse B- and T-lymphocyte neoplasms. Cell 28: 873–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Diamond AD, Cooper GM, Ritz J and Lane MA (1983). Identification and molecular cloning of the human blym transforming gene activated in Burkitt’s lymphomas. Nature 305: 112–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lane M-A, Sainten A, Doherty KM and Cooper GM (1984). Isolation and characterization of a stage-specific transforming gene, Thym-1, from T-cell lymphomas. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 81: 2227–2231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chang EH, Furth ME, Scolnick EM and Lowy DR (1982). Tumorigenic transformation of mammalian cells induced by a normal human gene homologous to the oncogene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus. Nature 297: 497–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Capon DJ, Chen EY, Levinson AD et al. (1983). Complete nucleotide sequences of the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene and its normal homologue. Nature 302: 33–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Capon DJ, Seeburg PH, McGrath JP et al. (1983). Activation of ki-ras2 gene in human colon and lung carcinomas by two different point mutations. Nature 304: 507–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Der CJ and Cooper GM (1983). Altered gene products are associated with activation of cellular rasé genes in human lung and colon carcinomas. Cell 32: 201–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reddy EP, Reynolds RK, Santos E and Barbacid M (1982). A point mutation is responsible for the acquisition of transforming properties by the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene. Nature 300: 149–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shimizu K, Birnbaum D, Ruley MA et al. (1983). Structure of the ki-ras gene of the human lung carcinoma cell line Calu-1. Nature 304: 497–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tabin CJ, Bradley SM, Bargmann CI et al. (1982). Mechanism of activation of a human oncogene. Nature 300: 143–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Taparowsky E, Suard Y, Fasano O et al. (1982). Activation of the T24 bladder carcinoma transforming gene is linked to a single amino acid change. Nature 300: 762–765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Taparowsky E, Shimizu K, Goldfarb M and Wigler M (1983). Structure and activation of the human n-ras gene. Cell 34: 581–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yuasa Y, Srivastava SK, Dunn CY et al. (1983). Acquisition of transforming properties by alternative point mutations within c-ras/n-ras human proto-oncogene. Nature 303: 775–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Furth ME, Davis LJ, Fleurdelys B and Scolnick EM (1982). Monoclonal antibodies to the p21 products of the transforming gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus and of the cellular ras gene family. J Viral 43: 294–304.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Willingham MC, Pastan I, Shih TY and Scolnick EM (1980). Localization of the src gene product of the Harvey strain of msv to plasma membrane of transformed cells by electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. Cell 19: 1005–1014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sefton BM, Trowbridge IS, Cooper JA and Scolnick EM (1982). The transforming proteins of Rous sarcoma virus, Harvey sarcoma virus and Abelson virus contain tightly bound lipid. Cell 31: 465–474.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scolnick EM, Papageorge AG and Shih TY (1979). Guanine nucleotide-binding activity as an assay for src protein of ras-derived murine sarcoma viruses. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 76: 5355–5359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Finkel T, Der CJ and Cooper GM (1984). Activation of ras genes in human tumors does not affect localization, modification, or nucleotide binding properties of p21. Cell 37: 151–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Finkel T and Cooper GM (1984). Detection of a molecular complex between ras proteins and transferrin receptor. Cell 36: 1115–1121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gilman AG (1984). G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase. Cell 36: 577–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Goubin G, Goldman DS, Luce J et al. (1983). Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA. Nature 302: 114–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hayward WS, Neel BG and Astrin SM (1981). Activation of a cellular oncogene by promoter insertion in ALV-induced lymphoid leukosis. Nature 290: 475–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cooper GM and Neiman PE (1981). Two distinct candidate transforming genes of lymphoid leukosis virus-induced neoplasms. Nature 292: 857–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dalla-Favera R, Bregni M, Erikson J et al. (1982). Human c-myc one gene is located on the region of chromosome 8 that is translocated in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 79: 7824–7827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taub R, Kirsch I, Morton C et al. (1982). Translocation of the c-myc gene into the immunoglobin heavy chain locus in human Burkitt lymphoma and murine plasmacytoma cells. Proc Nat Acad Sci Usa 79: 7837–7841.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morton CC, Taub R, Diamon A et al. (1984). Mapping of the human Blym-1 transforming gene activated in Burkitt lymphomas to chromosome 1. Science 223: 173–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Neiman PE, Jordan L, Weiss RA and Payne LN (1980). Malignant lymphoma of the bursa of Fabricus. Analysis of early transformation. Cold Spring Harbor Conf on Cell Proliferation 7: 519–528.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bister K, Jansen HW, Graf T et al. (1983). Genome structure of HBI, a variant of acute leukemia virus MC29 with unique oncogenic properties. J Virol 46: 337–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shen-Ong GLC, Keath EJ, Piccoli SP and Cole MD (1982). Novel myc oncogene RNA from abortive immunoglobin-gene recombination in mouse plasmacytomas. Cell 31: 443–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crews S, Barth R, Hood L et al. (1982). Mouse c-myc oncogene is located on chromosome 15 and translocated to chromosome 12 in plasmacytomas. Science 218: 1319–1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lane M-A, Neary D and Cooper GM (1982). Activation of a cellular transforming gene in tumours induced by Abelson murine leukaemia virus. Nature 300: 659–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tsichlis PN, Strauss PG and Hu LF (1983). A common region for proviral DNA integration in Mo MuLV-induced rat thymic lymphomas. Nature 302: 445–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nusse R and Varmus HE (1982). Many tumors induced by the mouse mammary tumor virus contain a provirus integrated in the same region of the host genome. Cell 31: 99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Peters G, Brookes S, Smith R and Dickson C (1983). Tumorigenesis by mouse mammary tumor virus: Evidence for a common region for provirus integration in mammary tumors. Cell 33: 369–377.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lane M-A, Sainten A and Cooper GM (1981). Activation of related transforming genes in mouse and human mammary carcinomas. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 78: 5185–5189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. M. Cooper
    • 1
  1. 1.Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of PathologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations