Application of Bovine Macrophage Bioassays in the Analysis of Toxic Agents in Complex Environmental Mixtures

  • Gerald L. Fisher
  • Karen L. McNeill
  • Charles J. Democko
Part of the Environmental Science Research book series (ESRH, volume 27)


The pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) plays a primary role in the defense of the lung against inhaled particulate matter. Fine particles deposited in the nonciliated regions of the lung are rapidly phagocytized and, if of biological origin, are rapidly killed and metabolized. In recent years, concern has focused on the effects of anthropogenic particulate matter with an emphasis on the PAM toxicity of trace metals and combustion products. Generally, however, previous efforts have described the utility of PAM derived from standard laboratory-animal models. In this report, we describe the methodology and application of the bovine PAM in the in vitro evaluation of metal and particulate toxicity.


Glass Bead Soluble Fraction Particle Fraction Test Particle Volume Medium Diameter 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald L. Fisher
    • 1
  • Karen L. McNeill
    • 1
  • Charles J. Democko
    • 1
  1. 1.Battelle Columbus LaboratoriesHealth and Environmental SciencesColumbusUSA

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