Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Hamster Tracheal Epithelium Exposed in Vitro to Chemical Carcinogens and Environmental Pollutants
- 80 Downloads
The Syrian golden hamster has been used extensively for studies of respiratory carcinogenesis (Saffiotti, 1969; Nettesheim, 1972; Becci et al., 1978). Using organ cultures of the target tissue (i.e., respiratory epithelium) obtained from the hamster, a middle ground has been established between animal experiments and the use of cell cultures for carcinogenesis research (Saffiotti and Harris, 1979). Metabolic studies on environmental chemical carcinogens have been conducted with tracheas of hamsters (Harris et al., 1973; Kaufman et al., 1974). Some carcinogens can be metabolically activated in the tracheal epithelium, and their interaction with cellular macromolecules can be localized at the molecular level by biochemical techniques or at the cellular level by autoradiography. Studies in cultured human bronchus have shown that the metabolic pathway leading to the major benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P)-DNA adducts is similar to that found in hamsters (Harris et al., 1978). Sixty-five percent of the B(a)P bound to DNA in human cells was removed after 10 days in culture. Since a variety of mammalian cells, including human, can repair damage to DNA caused by chemical carcinogens, it was speculated that DNA repair was responsible for this observation. Thus, by using hamster tracheas in organ culture maintaining specific metabolic enzymes, we may obtain a system relating to human respiratory carcinogenesis that is useful for screening environmental chemicals and complex mixtures capable of damaging DNA.
KeywordsChemical Carcinogen Tracheal Epithelium Tracheal Ring Electric Power Research Institute Syrian Golden Hamster
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Becci, P.J., E.M. McDowell, and B.F. Trump. 1978. The respiratory epithelium, IV: histogenesis of epidermoid metaplasia and carcinoma in situ in the hamster. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 61:577–586.Google Scholar
- Department of Energy and Electric Power Research Institute. 1979. Identification and quantification of polynuclear organic matter (POM) on particulates from a coal-fired power plant. DOE RTS 77–58 and EPRI-1092. Electric Power Research Institute: Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
- Harris, C.C., D.G. Kaufman, M.B. Sporn, H. Boren, F. Jackson, J.M. Smith, J. Pauley, P. Dedick, and U. Saffiotti. 1973. Localization of benzo[a]pyrene-3H and alterations in nuclear chromâtin caused by benzo[a]pyrene-ferric oxide in the hamster respiratory epithelium. Cancer Res. 33:2842–2848.Google Scholar
- Harris, C.C., H. Antrup, and G. Stoner. 1978. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in cultured human tissues and cells. In: Polycyclic Hydrocarbons and Cancer: Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Environment, Volume 2. P.O.P. Ts’o and H.V. Gelboin, eds. Academic Press: New York. pp. 331–342.Google Scholar
- Huisingh, J.L., R.L. Bradow, R.H. Jungers, B.D. Harris, R.B. Zweidinger, K.M. Cushing, B.E. Gill, and R.E. Albert. 1980. Mutagenic and carcinogenic potency of extracts of diesel and related environmental emissions: study design, sample generation, collection, and preparation. Presented at U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Symposium on the Health Effects of Diesel Engine Emissions, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
- Kaufman, D.G., V.M. Genta, and C.C. Harris. 1974. Studies on carcinogen binding in vitro in isolated hamster trachea. In: Experimental Lung Cancer. E. Karbe and J.F. Park, eds. Springer-Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. pp. 564–574.Google Scholar
- Nettesheim, P. 1972. Respiratory carcinogenesis studies with the Syrian golden hamster: a review. Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 16:185–200.Google Scholar
- Saffiotti, U. 1969. Experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis. In: Progress in Experimental Tumor Research, Volume 11. F. Homburger, ed. S. Karger: Basel, New York. pp. 302–333.Google Scholar
- Saffiotti, U. 1972. The laboratory approach to the identification of environmental carcinogens. In: Proceedings of the Ninth Canadian Cancer Research Conference. P.J. Scholenfield, ed. University of Toronto Press: Toronto, pp. 23–36.Google Scholar
- Saffiotti, U., and C.C. Harris. 1979. Carcinogenesis studies on organ cultures of animal and human respiratory tissues. In: Carcinogenesis: Identification and Mechanisms of Action. A.C. Griffin and C.R. Shaw, eds. Raven Press: New York, pp. 65–80.Google Scholar