Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus (FETAX) — A Short-Term Assay Applicable to Complex Environmental Mixtures
- 94 Downloads
There is no question that a rapid and inexpensive screening tool is needed to assess potential teratogenicity. The now classical Ames test (Ames, 1975) and other tests screen for potential mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Although a number of relatively rapid bioassays, ranging from the invertebrates through lower vertebrates to mammals, as well as cell, organ, and embryo culture systems, have been used to examine teratogenicity, none has been adequately validated or widely accepted for routine use. The tier-testing approach, which uses rapid screens to detect potential hazard and indicate need for further testing, has been useful and expedient. Comparable tests, however, are not yet applicable for teratogenesis testing despite the fact that there are a number of methods available. Among these is one which we submit may be a valid model for preliminary assessment of potential teratogens. This model, referred to as FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus), has been applied to examine the relative teratogenic risk of a variety of chemicals and complex mixtures. The mixtures we have tested come from coal-conversion and shale-oil technologies and their effects have been compared to those of similar materials derived from natural petroleums.
KeywordsAqueous Extract Xenopus Laevis Artificial Pond Water Jelly Coat Xenopus Laevis Embryo
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ames, B.N., J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki. 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Res. 31:347–364.Google Scholar
- Dumont, N.J. and T.W. Schultz. 1980. Effects of coal-gasification sour water on Xenopus laevis embryos. J. Environ. Sci. Health A15:127–138.Google Scholar
- Edmisten, G.E., M.B. Couch, C.L. Courchesne, and J.A. Bantle. 1981. The use of Xenopus laevis as a test organism to measure the toxicity and teratogenicity of aquatic borne compounds. Presented at the second annual meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Arlington, VA. p. 131.Google Scholar
- Griest, W.H., D.L. Coffin, and M.R. Guerin. 1980. Fossil Fuels Research Matrix Program. ORNL/TM-7346. Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
- Manson, J.M. 1980. In vitro teratogenicity tests. In: Proceedings of a Workshop on Methodology for Assessing Reproductive Hazards in the Workplace. Department of Health and Human Services publication no. 81–100. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health: Washington, DC. 423 pp.Google Scholar
- Neiuwkoop, P.D. and J. Faber. 1975. Normal table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin), 2nd ed. North Holland: Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Rugh, R. 1952. Removal of jelly capsules. In: Experimental Embryology. Burgess Publishing Co.: Minneapolis, MN. p. 15.Google Scholar