Mutagenicity Testing of Complex Mixtures Derived from Human Body Fluids
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Although short-term bioassays have usually been developed by testing individual chemicals, samples which need to be evaluated for potential human health hazard are often complex mixtures. These mixtures may contain many toxic substances, each present in small quantities. To detect such toxins in bioassays, sample preparation will involve concentration of the compounds of interest and removal of material which will interfere with the test system. If the toxicity is due to many compounds, isolation and concentration of the total biological activity will be useful either as a preliminary step for chemical analysis or as a method for characterizing some of the toxic and chemical properties of the mixture. Mutagenicity tests are useful for monitoring genotoxic activity during such isolation procedures, since these assays are relatively quick and simple. Moreover, a large number of carcinogens are mutagenic (McCann et al., 1975; Rinkus and Legator, 1979); therefore, isolating mutagenic activity may develop procedures which will be useful in isolating carcinogens. Using simple chemical separation techniques and mutagenicity testing, we have highly concentrated the mutagens in smokers’ urine and have elucidated some of their chemical characteristics.
KeywordsHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography Mutagenic Activity Methylene Chloride Extract Cigarette Smoke Condensate Human Body Fluid
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