Advertisement

Metabolism of Intravenous Adenine in the Pig

  • J. S. Cameron
  • H. A. Simmonds
  • A. Cadenhead
  • D. Farebrother
Chapter
  • 91 Downloads
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series

Abstract

Although adenine is widely distributed throughout mammalian tissues; either in the form of the energy-rich adenine nucleotides, in combination as the nucleic acids, or the essential enzymes and co-factors such as NAD, FAD; free adenine is almost undetectable in body fluids and tissues under normal circumstances. Since there is no deamination system for adenine at the free base level in mammalian systems (1,6) it can be presumed that all metabolic transformations involving adenine must occur at nucleoside or nucleotide level. An extremely high Km for nucleoside phosphorylase with adenine as substrate makes it extremely unlikely that direct utilisation or formation of adenine normally occurs via this route in mammalian systems (13) (although both the above transformations may be demonstrated in bacterial systems)(6) This being so, the main route for removal of adenine will be to AMP via PRPP and the enzyme APRTase, although endogenous production of free adenine appears unlikely by any of the above routes.

Keywords

Uric Acid Xanthine Oxidase Polarise Light Purine Metabolism Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bendich, A., Bosworth Brown, G., Philips, F.S. and Thiersch, J.B. The direct oxidation of adenine in vivo. J. Biol. Chem., 183, 267–277 (1950).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cameron, J.S., Simmonds, H.A., Hatfield, P.J., Jones, A.S. and Cadenhead, A. The pig as an animal model for purine metabolic studies, in Purine Metabolism in Man (Ed. Sperling, P., de Vries, A. & Wyngaarden, J.B.), 41B. 691-(Plenum Press, N.Y. 1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ceccarelli, M., Ciompi, M.L. and Pasero, G. Acute renal failure during adenine therapy in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, in Purine Metabolism in Man (Ed. Sperling, P., de Vries, A. & Wyngaarden, J.B.), 41B, 671–679 (Plenum Press, N.Y. 1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Falk, J.S., Lindblad, G.T.O. and Westman, B.J.M. Histopathological studies on kidneys from patients treated with large amounts of blood preserved with ACD-adenine. Transfusion, 12, 376–381 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Farebrother, D.A., Hatfield, P., Simmonds, H.A., Cameron, J.S., Jones, A.S. and Cadenhead, A. Experimental crystal nephropathy (one year study in the pig). Clin. Nephrol., 4, 243–250 (1975).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hochdtadt-Ozer, J. The regulation of purine utilization in bacteria. J. Biol. Chem., 247, 2419–2426 (1972).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Minkowski, O. Untersuchen zur Physiologie und pathologie de Harnsaure bei Saugethieren. Arch. Exp. Pathol. u. Pharmacol., 41, 375–420 (1898).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nicolaier, A. Ueber die Umwandlung des adenins im thierischen Organismus. Z. klin. Med., 45359–374 (1902).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Seegmiller, J.E., Klinenberg, J.R., Miller, J. and Watts, R.W.E. Suppression of glycine 15N incorporation into urinary uric acid by adenine 814C in normal and gouty subjects. J. Clin. Invest., 47, 1193–1203 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Simmonds, H.A. Urinary excretion of purines, pyrimidines and pyrazolopyrimidines in patients treated with allopurinol and oxipurinol. Clin. Chim. Acta, 23, 353–364 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simmonds, H.A., Hatfield, P.J., Cameron, J.S., Jones, A.S. and Cadenhead, A. Metabolic studies of purine metabolism in the pig during the oral administration of guanine and allopurinol. Mochem. Pharmacol., 22, 2537–2551 (1973).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simmonds, H.A., Van Acker, K.J., Cameron, J.S., McBurney, A. and Snedden, W. Purine excretion in complete adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency: effect of diet and allopurinol therapy. (This Symposium).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Snyder, F.F. and Henderson, J.F. Alternative pathways of deoxyadenosine and adenosine metabolism. J. Biol. Chem., 248, 5899–5904 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14-.
    Stern, I.J., Cosmos, F. and Garvin, P.J. The occurrence and binding of 2,8-dioxyadenine in plasma. Transfusion, 12. 382–388 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sweetman, L. Urinary and CSF oxypurine levels and allopurinol metabolism in the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Fed. Proc, 22, 1055–1059 (1968).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Acker, K.J., Simmonds, H.A. and Cameron, J.S. Complete deficiency of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRTase): report of a family. (This Symposium).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. Cameron
    • 1
  • H. A. Simmonds
    • 1
  • A. Cadenhead
    • 2
  • D. Farebrother
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MedicineGuy’s HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Rowett Research InstituteBucksburn, AberdeenUK
  3. 3.Wellcome FoundationBeckenham, KentUK

Personalised recommendations