Review of the Steps for Designing an Instrument

  • D. Betsy McCoachEmail author
  • Robert K. Gable
  • John P. Madura


The purpose of Chapter 8 is to synthesize all of the technical and methodological elements discussed throughout this book into a series of recommended guidelines. Throughout the chapter, the major development themes are highlighted in way that allows researchers to refer back to preceding chapters for more detailed explanations of the step at hand. This chapter also helps to alert the reader to many “application” challenges that are typically not addressed in theoretical discussions of instrument development and design. Important, but previously unaddressed practical topics such as formatting, writing survey directions, the inclusion of demographic information, as well as the process of piloting an instrument are discussed in this final section. Ultimately, this final chapter should serve as a summary of the “best practices” used by researchers concerned with developing the most effective and efficient instrument for measuring affective characteristics.


Dimension  Factor analysis  Item analysis  Reliability  Pilot analysis  Validity  Construct  Scale subscale  


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Betsy McCoach
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert K. Gable
    • 2
  • John P. Madura
    • 3
  1. 1.Educational Psychology DepartmentUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA
  2. 2.Alan Shawn Feinstein Graduate SchoolJohnson and Wales UniversityStorrsUSA
  3. 3.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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