Psychopaths and their Nature

Some Implications for Understanding Human Predatory Violence
  • Robert D. Hare


In closing the “International Meeting on Biology and Sociology of Violence,” held in Valencia in 1996, Her Majesty Queen Sophia of Spain noted that the future will see major advances in our understanding of—and our ability to deal with—the genetic and biological factors in aggression and violence. Her Majesty The Queen also offered the hope that the considerable information we already have concerning the environmental origins of violence would be put to more immediate use.


Personality Disorder Lexical Decision Task Antisocial Personality Disorder Emotional Word Recidivism Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. American Psychiatric Association (1994): Diagnostic and statistical manual of mentaldisorders (4th ed.), Washington DC, Author.Google Scholar
  2. Babiak, P. (1995): When psychopaths go to work, International Journal of AppliedPsychology, 44, pp. 171–188.Google Scholar
  3. Barbaree, H.; Seto, M.; Serin, R., Amos, N. & Preston, D. (1994): Comparisons between sexual and nonsexual rapist subtypes, Criminal Justice and Behavior, 21, pp. 95–114.Google Scholar
  4. Berrios, G. E. (1996) The history of mental symptoms: Descriptive psychopathology since the nineteenth century, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Blair, R. J. R. & Cipolotti, L. (2000): Impaired social reversal: A case of acquired sociopathy, Brain, 123, pp. 1122–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blair, R. J. R.; Morris, J. S., Frith, C. D.; Perret, D. I. & Dolan, R. J. (2000): “Dissociable neural responses to facial expressions of sadness and anger”, Brain, 122, pp. 883–893.Google Scholar
  7. Brandt, J. R.; Kennedy, W. A.; Patrick, C. J. & Curtin, J. J. (1997): “Assessment of psychopathy in a population of incarcerated adolescent offenders”, PsychologicalAssessment, 9, pp. 429–435.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, S. L. & Forth, A. E. (1997): “Psychopathy and sexual assault: Static risk factors, emotional precursors, and rapist subtypes”, Journal of Consulting and ClinicalPsychology, 65, pp. 848–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carter, C. S.; Braver, T. S.; Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M. M., Noll, D. & Cohen, J. D. (1998): “Anterior cingulated cortex, error detection, and the online monitoring of performance”, Science, 280, pp. 747–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cleckley, H. (1976): The mask of sanity (5th ed.), St. Louis MO, Mosby.Google Scholar
  11. Cooke, D. J.; Forth, A. E. & Hare, R. D. (eds.) (1998): Psychopathy : Theory, research, andimplications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  12. Cooke, D. J. & Michie, C. (1997): “An Item Response Theory analysis of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist”, Psychological Assessment, 9, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  13. Cooke, D. J. & Michie, C. (1999): Psychopathy across cultures: North America and Scotland compared, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.58–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooke D. J. & Michie, C. (in press,): A hierarchical model of psychopathy: Replication and implications for measurement, Psychological Assessment.Google Scholar
  15. Cooke, D. J., Michie, C.; Hart, S. D. & Hare, R. D. (1999): Evaluation of the screening version of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL:SV): An item response theory analysis, Psychological Assessment, 11, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  16. Cornell, D. G.; Warren, J.; Hawk, G.; Stafford, E.; Oram, G. & Pine, D. (1996): Psychopathy of instrumental and reactive violent offenders, Journal of Consulting and ClinicalPsychology, 64, pp. 783–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Damasio, A. (1994): Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain, New York, Putnam.Google Scholar
  18. Dolan, B. & Coid, J. (1993): Psychopathic and antisocial personality disorders: Treatmentand research issues, London, Gaskell.Google Scholar
  19. Dolan, M. & Doyle, M. (2000): Violence risk prediction: Clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the Psychopathy Checklist, British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, pp. 303–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Douglas, K. S.; Ogloff, J. R. P. & Nicholls, T. L. (1997, junio): Personality disorders andviolence in civil psychiatric patients, Paper presented at the 5th International Congress on the Disorders of Personality, Vancouver, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  21. Dutton, D. G. & Kropp, P. R. (2000): A review of domestic violence risk instruments, Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 1 pp. 171– 181.Google Scholar
  22. Edens, J. F.; Skeem, J. L.; Cruise, K. R. & Cauffman, E. (2001): Assessment of juvenile psychopathy and its association with violence: A critical review, Behavioral Sciencesand the Law, 19, pp. 53–80.Google Scholar
  23. Federal Bureau of Investigation (1992): Killed in the line of duty, Washington DC, United States Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  24. Firestone, P.; Bradford, J. M.; Greenberg, D. M. & Larose, M. R. (1998): Homicidal sex offenders: Psychological, phallometric, and diagnostic features, Journal of the AmericanAcademy of Psychiatry and Law, 26, pp. 537–552.Google Scholar
  25. Forth, A. E., (1995): Psychopathy and young offenders: Prevalence, family background, andviolence, Programs Branch Users Report, Ottawa — Ontario, Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada.Google Scholar
  26. Forth, A. E.; Brown, S. L.; Hart, S. D. & Hare, R. D. (1996): The assessment of psychopathy in male and female noncriminals: Reliability and validity, Personality and IndividualDifferences, 20, pp. 531–543.Google Scholar
  27. Forth, A. E. & Burke, H. (1998): Psychopathy in adolescence: Assessment, violence, and developmental precursors, in R. D. Cooke, A. E. Forth & R. D. Hare (eds.), Psychopathy : Theory, research, and implications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer, pp. 205–229.Google Scholar
  28. Forth, A. E.; Hart, S. D. & Hare, R. D. (1990): Assessment of psychopathy in male young offenders, Psychological Assessment, 2, pp. 342–344.Google Scholar
  29. Forth, A. E.; Kosson, D. & Hare, R. D. (in press): The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: YouthVersion, Toronto-Ontario, Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  30. Frick, P.J. (1998): Callous-emotional traits and conduct problems: Applying the two-factor model of psychopathy to children, in D. J. Cooke, A. E. Forth & R. D. Hare (eds.): Psychopathy : Theory, research, and implications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  31. Fulero, S. M. (1995): Review of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, in J. C. Conoley & J. C. Impara (eds.), Twelfth mental measurements yearbook, Lincoln NE, Buros Institute., pp. 453–454.Google Scholar
  32. Fuster, J. M. (1997): The prefrontal cortex: Anatomy, physiology and neuropsychology of thefrontal lobe (3a ed.), Philadelphia PA, Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  33. Gillstrom, B. (1995): Abstract thinking in criminal Psychopaths, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  34. Gorenstein, E. E. & Newman, J. P. (1980): Disinhibitory psychopathology: A new perspective and a model for research, Psychological Review, 87, pp. 301–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Grann, M; Langstrm, N.; Tengstrm, A. & Kullgren, G. (1999): Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden, Law and Human Behavior, 23, pp. 205–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gretton, H. M. (1998): Psychopathy and recidivism in adolescence: A ten-year retrospective follow-up, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  37. Gretton, H. M.; McBride, M.; Hare, R. D., O’Shaughnessy, R. & Kumka, G. (in press): Psychopathy and recidivism in adolescent sex offenders, Criminal Justice andBehavior.Google Scholar
  38. Grisola, J. S.; Sanmartin, J.; Lujn, j. L. & Grisola, S. (eds.) (1997): Violence: from biologyto society, Amsterdam, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  39. Gustaffson, S. B. & Ritzer, D. R. (1995): The dark side of normal: A Psychopathy-linked pattern called aberrant self-promotion, European Journal of Personality, 9, pp. 1–37.Google Scholar
  40. Hare, R. D. (1985): A comparison of procedures for the assessment of psychopathy, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, pp. 7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hare, R. D. (1991): The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Canada, Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  42. Hare, R. D. (1993): Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us, New York, Pocket Books. Reissued in 1998 by Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hare, R. D. (1998): Psychopathy, affect, and behavior, in D. J. Cooke, A. E. Forth & R. D. Hare (eds.), Psychopathy : Theory, research, and implications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  44. Hare, R. D. (1999): Psychopathy as a risk factor for violence, Psychiatric Quarterly, 70, pp. 181–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hare, R. D.; Clark, D.; Grann, M. & Thornton, D. (2000). Psychopathy and the predictive validity of the PCL-R: An international perspective, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18, pp. 623–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hare, R. D. & Hart, S. D. (1995): A commentary on the Antisocial Personality Disorder Field Trial, in W. J. Livesley (ed.), The DSM-IV personality disorders, New York, Guilford.Google Scholar
  47. Hare, R. D.; McPherson, L. E. & Forth, A. E. (1988): Male psychopaths and their criminal careers, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, pp. 710–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Harpur, T. J. & Hare, R. D. (1994): The assessment of psychopathy as a function of age, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, pp. 604–609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris, A. J. R. & Hanson, R. K. (1998, October): Supervising the psychopathic sex deviant inthe community, Paper presented at the 17th Annual Research and Treatment Conference, The Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  50. Harris, G. T.; Rice, M. E. & Cormier, C. A. (1991): Psychopathy and violent recidivism, Law and Human Behavior, 15, pp. 625–637.Google Scholar
  51. Harris, G. T.; Rice, M. E. & Quinsey, V. L. (1993): Violent recidivism of mentally disordered offenders: The development of a statistical prediction instrument, CriminalJustice and Behavior, 20, pp. 315–335.Google Scholar
  52. Hart, S. D.; Cox, D. N. & Hare, R. D. (1995): The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: ScreeningVersion, Toronto, Canada, Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  53. Hart, S. D.; Forth, A. E. & Hare, R. D. (1990): Neuropsychological assessment of criminal psychopaths, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, pp. 374–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hart, S. D. & Hare, R. D. (1989): Discriminant validity of the Psychopathy Checklist in a forensic psychiatric population, Psychological Assessment, 1, pp. 211–218.Google Scholar
  55. Hart, S. D. & Hare, R. D. (1997): Psychopathy: Assessment and association with criminal conduct, in D. M. Stoff, J. Brieling & J. Maser (eds.). Handbook of antisocial behavior, New York, Wiley, (pp. 22–35).Google Scholar
  56. Hart, S. D.; Kropp, P. R. & Hare, R. D. (1988): Performance of psychopaths following conditional release from prison, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, pp. 227–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Heilbrun, K.; Hart, S. D.; Hare, R. D.; Gustafson, D.; Nunez, C. & White, A. (1998): Inpatient and post-discharge aggression in mentally disordered offenders: The role of psychopathy Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13, pp. 514–527.Google Scholar
  58. Hemphill, J. (1991): Psychopathy and recidivism following release from a therapeuticcommunity treatment program, Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.Google Scholar
  59. Hemphill, J. F.; Hare, R. D. & Wong, S. (1998): Psychopathy and recidivism: A review, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 3, pp. 141 -172.Google Scholar
  60. Hemphill, J.; Hart, S. D. & Hare, R. D. (1994): Psychopathy and substance use, Journal ofPersonality Disorders, 8, pp. 32–40.Google Scholar
  61. Hemphill, J. F.; Strachan, C. & Hare, R. D. (1999): Psychopathy in female offenders, Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  62. Hill, C. D.; Rogers, R. & Bickford, M. E. (1996): Predicting aggressive and socially disruptive behavior in a maximum security forensic psychiatric hospital, Journal ofForensic Sciences, 41 pp. 56–59.Google Scholar
  63. Hobson, J.; Shine, J. & Roberts, R. (2000): How do psychopaths behave in a prison therapeutic prison community?, Crime, and Law Psychology, 6, pp. 139–154.Google Scholar
  64. Huss, M. T. & Langhinrischen-Rohling, J. (2000): Identification of the psychopathic batterer: The clinical, legal, and policy implications, Aggression and Violent Behavior, 5, pp. 403–422.Google Scholar
  65. Intrator, J.; Hare, R.; Strizke, P.; Brichtswein, K.; Dorfman, D.; Harpur, T.; Bernstein, D.; Handelsman, L.; Schaefer, C.; Keilp, J.; Rosen, J. & Machac, J. (1997): Brain imaging (SPECT) study of semantic and affective processing in Psychopaths, BiologicalPsychiatry, 42, pp. 96–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kiehl, K. A.; Hare, R. D.; McDonald, J. J. & Brink, J. (1999): Semantic and affective processing in psychopaths: An event-related potential (ERP) study, Psychophysiology., 36, pp. 765–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kiehl, K. A.; Liddle, P. F. & Hopfinger, J. B. (2000): Error processing in the rostral anterior cingulated: An event-related fMRIIII study, Psychophysiology, 37, pp. 216–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kiehl, K. A.; Smith, A. M.; Hare, R. D. & Liddle, P. F. (2000): An event-related potential investigation of response inhibition in schizophrenia and psychopathy, BiologicalPsychiatry, 48, pp. 210–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kiehl, K. A.; Smith, A. M.; Mendrek, A.; Forster, B. B.; Hare, R. D. & Liddle, P. F. (2001): Reduced limbic activity in criminal psychopaths during an affective memory task 2, manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  70. Konishi, S.; Naaaakajima, K.; Uchida, I.; Kikyo, H.; Kameyama, M. & Miyashita, Y. (1999): Common inhibitory mechanism in human inferior prefrontal cortex revealed by event-related functional MRI, Brain, 122, pp. 981–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kosson, D. S. & Harpur, T. J. (1997): Attentional functioning of psychopathic individuals: Current evidence and developmental implications, in J. A. Burack & J. T. Enns (eds.), Attention: Development and psychopathology, New York, Guilford Press, pp. 379–402.Google Scholar
  72. Lapierre, D.; Braun, C. M. J. & Hodgins, S. (1995): Ventral frontal deficits in psychopathy: Neuropsychological test findings Neuropsychologia, 33, pp. 139–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Liddle, P. F.; Smith, A. M.; Kiehl, K. A.; Mendrek, A. & Hare, R. D. (1999, April): Responseinhibition in schizophrenia and psychopathy: Similarities and differences, Paper presented at the International Congress of Schizophrenia Research, Santa Fe, California.Google Scholar
  74. Livesley, W. J. (1998): The phenotypic and genotypic structure of psychopathic traits, in D. J. Cooke, A. E. Forth & R. D. Hare (eds.), Psychopathy : Theory, research, andimplications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  75. Lsel, F. (1998): Treatment and management of psychopaths, in D. J. Cooke, A. E. Forth & R. D. Hare (eds.), Psychopathy : Theoiy, research, and implications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  76. Lykken, D. T. (1995): The antisocial personalities, Hillsdale NJ, Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  77. Lynam, D. R. (1996): Early identification of chronic offenders: Who is the fledgling psychopath?, Psychological Bulletin, 120, pp. 209–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McBride, M. (1998): Individual and familial risk factors for adolescent psychopathy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
  79. McCord, W. & McCord, J. (1964): The psychopath: An essay on the criminal mind, Princeton NJ, Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  80. Mealey, L. (1995): The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, pp. 523–599.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, M. W.; Geddings, V. J.; Levenston, G. K. & Patrick, C. J. (1994, marzo): Thepersonality characteristics of psychopathic and nonpsychopathic sex offenders, Paper presented at the Reunin Bianual de la American Psychology-Law Society (Div. 41 of the American Psychological Association), Santa Fe New Mexico.Google Scholar
  82. Millon, T.; Simonsen, E.; Birket-Smith, M. & Davis, R. D. (1998): Psychopathy : Antisocial,criminal, and violent behaviors, New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  83. Murphy, J. M. (1976): Psychiatric labelling in cross-cultural perspective: Similar kinds of disturbed behavior appear to be labelled abnormal in diverse cultures, Science, 191, pp. 1019–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Newman, J. P. (1998): Psychopathic behavior: An information processing perspective, in D. J. Cooke, A. E. Forth & R. D. Hare (eds.), Psychopathy : Theory, research, andimplications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  85. Ogloff, J.; Wong, S. & Greenwood, A. (1990): Treating criminal psychopaths in a therapeutic community program. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 8, pp. 81–90.Google Scholar
  86. Patrick, C. J. (1994): Emotion and psychopathy: Some startling new insights, Psychophysiology, 31 pp. 319–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Pichot, P. (1978): Psychopathic behavior: A historical overview, in R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (eds.). Psychopathic behavior: Approaches to research, Chichester UK, John Wiley, pp. 55–70.Google Scholar
  88. Porter, S.; Fairweather, D.; Drugge, J.; Herv, H.; Birt, A. & Boer, D. P. (2000): Profiles of psychopathy in incarcerated sexual offenders, Criminal Justice andBehavior, 27, pp. 216–233.Google Scholar
  89. Quinsey, V. L.; Harris, G. E.; Rice, M. E. & Lalumiere, M. L. (1993): Assessing treatment efficacy in outcome studies of sex offenders, Journal of interpersonal Violence, 8, pp. 512–523.Google Scholar
  90. Quinsey, V. L.; Rice, M. E. & Harris, G. T. (1995): Actuarial prediction of sexual recidivism, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, pp. 85–105.Google Scholar
  91. Rice, M. E. & Harris, G. T. (1992): A comparison of criminal recidivism among schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic offenders. International Journal of Law andPsychiatry, 15, pp. 397–408.Google Scholar
  92. Rice, M. E. & Harris, G. T. (1997): Cross-validation and extension of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide for child molesters and rapists, Law and Human Behavior, 21, pp. 231–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rice, M. E.; Harris, G. T. & Cormier, C. A. (1992): An evaluation of a maximum security therapeutic community for psychopaths and other mentally disordered offenders. Lawand Human Behavior, 16, pp. 399–412.Google Scholar
  94. Robins, L. N. (1978): Aetiological implications in studies of childhood histories relating to antisocial personality, in R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (eds.), Psychopathic behavior:Approaches to research, Chichester UK, John Wiley, pp. 255–271.Google Scholar
  95. Salekin, R.; Rogers, R. & Sewell, K. (1996): Areview and meta-analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Predictive validity of dangerousness, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 3, pp. 203–215.Google Scholar
  96. Salekin, R.; Rogers, R. & Sewell, K. (1997): Construct validity of psychopathy in a female offender sample: A multitrait-multirnethod evaluation, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, pp. 576–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Salekin, R.W.; Rogers, R.; Ustad, K.L. & Sewell, K.W. (1998): Psychopathy and recidivism among female inmates, Law and Human Behavior, 22, pp. 109–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schneider, F.; Habel, U.; Kessler, C.; Posse, S.; Grodd, W. & Mller-Gartner, H. (2000): Functional imaging of conditioned aversive emotional responses in antisocial personality disorder, Neuropsychobiology, 42, pp. 192–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Serin, R. C. & Amos, N. L. (1995): The role of psychopathy in the assessment of dangerousness, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 18, pp. 231 -238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Serin, R. C.; Malcolm, P. B.; Khanna, A. & Barbaree, H. E. (1994): Psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal in incarcerated sexual offenders, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, pp. 3–11.Google Scholar
  101. Silver, E.; Mulvey, E. P. & Monahan, J. (1999): Assessing violence risk among discharged psychiatric patients: Toward an ecological approach, Law and Human Behavior, 23, pp. 237–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Squire, L. R. (1987): Memory: Neural organization and behavior, in F. Plum (ed.), Handbook of Physiology. The Nervous System, Bethesda, MD, American Physiological Society.Google Scholar
  103. Steadman, H. J.; Silver, E.; Monahan, J.; Appelbaum, P. S.; Robbins, P. M.; Mulvey, E. P.; Grisso, T.; Roth, L. H. & Banks, S. (2000): A classification tree approach to the development of actuarial violence risk assessment tools, Law and Human Behavior, 24, pp. 83–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Stone, M. H. (1998): The personalities of murderers: The importance of psychopathy and sadism, in A. E. Skodol (ed.), Psychopathology and violent crime, Washington DC, American Psychiatric Association, pp. 29–52.Google Scholar
  105. Suedfeld, P. & Landon, P.B. (1978): Approaches to treatment, in R. D. Hare & D. Schalling (eds.): Psychopathic behavior: Approaches to research, Chichester UK, Wiley, pp. 347–376.Google Scholar
  106. Tengstrm, A.; Grann, M.; Langstrm, N. & Kullgren, G. (2000): Psychopathy (PCL-R) as a predictor of violent recidivism among criminal offenders with schizophrenia, Law andHuman Behavior, 24, pp. 45–58.Google Scholar
  107. Toupin, J.; Mercier, H.; Dery, M.; Ct, G. & Hodgins, S. (1996): Validity of the PCL-R for adolescents, in D. J. Cooke, A. E. Forth, J. P. Newman & R. D. Hare (eds.), Issues inCriminological and Legal Psychology, No. 24, International perspectives on psychopathy, Leicester UK, British Psychological Society, pp. 143–145.Google Scholar
  108. Tucker, W. (1999): The mad vs. the bad revisited: Managing predatory behavior, Psychiatric Quarterly, 70, pp. 221–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Widiger, T. A. (1998): Psychopathy and normal personality, in D. J. Cooke, A. E. Forth & R. D. Hare (eds.), Psychopathy : Theory,research, and implications for society, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer.Google Scholar
  110. Widiger, T. A.; Cadoret, R.; Hare, R. D.; Robins, L.; Rutherford, M.; Zanarini, M.; Alterman, A.; Apple, M.; Corbitt, E.; Forth, A.; Hart, S.; Kulterman, J. & Woody, G. (1996): DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder Field Trial, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, pp. 3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Widiger, T. A. & Corbitt, E. (1995): The DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder, in W. J. Livesley (ed.), The DSM-IV personality disorders, New York, Guilford.Google Scholar
  112. Williamson, S. E.; Harpur, T. J. & Hare, R. D. (1991): Abnormal processing of affective words by psychopaths, Psychophysiology, 28, pp. 260–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilson, J. Q. & Herrnstein, R. J. (1985): Crime and human nature, New York, Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  114. Wintrup, A. (1994): The predictive validity of the PCL-R in high risk mentally disordered offenders, Unpublished manuscript, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.Google Scholar
  115. Wong, S. & Hare, R. D. (in press): Program guidelines for the institutional treatment of violent psychopaths, Toronto, Canada, Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  116. World Health Organization (1990): International classification of diseases and related health problems (10th ed.), Genera, Switzerland, Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert D. Hare
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations