A Systematic Framework for Environmentally Conscious Design

Using Fuzzy House of Quality and Analytical Hierarchical Process Techniques
  • Michael H. Wang


In this chapter, a systematic framework for environmentally conscous design purposes is outlined. It focuses on ensuring better environmental performance by means of selecting environmentally friendly design alternatives. Since the environmental performance of a product relies on varied issues including nature resources consumption, manufacturing and distribution efficiency, and end-of-life management, designers have to face complicated trade-offs during the processes of product design. Our framework contains two parts for dealing with the complicated trade-offs. These two parts are ([1) the individual assessment for each life cycle stage, and ([2) the overall assessment for entire product life cycle. The individual assessment tool incorporates House of Quality (HOQ) with fuzzy set theory and Analytic Hierarchy Proces (AHP), and is used in analyzing the interrelations between environmentally conscious requirements and product design criteria. The overall assessment method is based upon the concept of product life cycle design, which involves a fouistep analysis so that the comprehensive environmental effects can be captured at the up-front design stage.


Life Cycle Assessment Analytic Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Number Design Alternative Quality Function Deployment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agba E. I., Rigg, R. H. and Wahlquist, D. R., 1996, “Design requirements planning for Design-for-X implementation.” Proceedings of the 1996 National Design Engineering Conference, March, 1–7.Google Scholar
  2. Alting, L. and Legarth J. B., 1995, “Life cycle engineering and design.” Annals of the CIRP, 42/2, 569–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boothroyd, G., 1992, “Assembly automation and product design.” Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Bor, J. M., 1994, “The influence of waste strategies on product design.” Materials & Design, Vol. 15, No. 4, 219–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooke L., 1993, “Recycling: what’s next.” Automotive Industries, May, 4344.Google Scholar
  6. Bylinsky, G., 1995, “Manufacturing for reuse.” Fortune, Feb., 102–112.Google Scholar
  7. Dowie, T., 1994, “Green design.” World Class Design to Maiufacture, Vol. 1, No 4, 32–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1993, “Life-cycle design guidance manual: environmental requirements and the product system.” Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  9. Fiksel, J., 1993, “Design for environment: an integrated systems approach.” Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, 126–131.Google Scholar
  10. Ishii, K., Eubanks, C. F. and Marco, P. D., 1994, “Design for product retirement and material life-cycle.” Materials & Design, Vol. 15 No. 4, 225–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnson, M. and Wang, M., 1995, “Planning product disassembly for material recovery opportunities.” International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 33, No 11, 3119–3142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jovane, F., Alting L., Armillotta, A., Eversheim, W., FeHmann, K., Seliger, G. and Roth, N., 1993, “A key issue in product life cycle: disassembly.” Annals of the CIRP, 42/2,651–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Keoleian, G. A. and Menerey, D., 1994, “Sustainable development by design: review of life cycle design and related approaches.” Air & Waste, Vol. 44, May, 645–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Navin-Chandra, D. 1994, “The recovery problem in product design.” Journal of Engineering Design, Vol. 5, No. 1,67–87.Google Scholar
  15. Penev, K. D. and Deron, A. J., 1994, “Development of disassembly line for refrigerators.” Industrial Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 11, Nov., 50–53.Google Scholar
  16. Philipps, K. K., Vadrevu, S., Olson, W. W. and Sutherland, J. W., 1994, “Concurrent engineering and the environment.” S. M. Wu Symposium, Vol. 1,349–354.Google Scholar
  17. Poyner, J. R. and Simon, M., 1995, “Integration of ECD tools with product development.” CONCEPT - Clean Electronics Products and Technology, 9–11 October, 54–59.Google Scholar
  18. Rhodes, C. R., 1996, “ECD—more than just design for the environment.” Printed Circuit Fabrication, Vol. 19, No. 11, November, 22–24.Google Scholar
  19. Rosenberg, D., 1992, “Designing for disassembly.” Trends, Nov., 17–18.Google Scholar
  20. Ross, P. J., 1988, “The role of Taguchi methods and design of experiments in QFD.” Quality Progress, Vol. 21, No. 6, June, 41–47.Google Scholar
  21. Saaty, T. L., 1980, “The analytic hierarchy process.” McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Saaty, T. L. and Kearns K. P., 1985, “Analytical planning.” Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  23. Simon, M., 1991, “Design for dismantling.” Professional Engineering, Nov., 20–22.Google Scholar
  24. Spicer, A and Wang, M. H., 1996, “Disassembly modeling and analysis.” Contract Report to Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP), Highland Park, MI, USA.Google Scholar
  25. Tung, C. and Wang, M. H., 1998, “A systematic approach for product life-cycle design.” Proceedings of Northeast Decision Sciences Institute 27th annual meeting, pp. 376–378.Google Scholar
  26. U.S. Congress, Office of Technobgy Assessment, 1992, “Green products by design: choices for a cleaner environment.” OTA-E-541.Google Scholar
  27. VDI 2243 1993, “KonstruierenrecyclinggerechterProdukte..” VDIEKV,BeuthVertrieb.Google Scholar
  28. Vergow, Z. and Bras, B., 1994, “Recycling oriented fasteners: a critical evaluation of VDI 2243s selection table.” ASME Advances in Design Automation, DE-Vol. 692,341–349.Google Scholar
  29. Watkins, R. D. and Granoff, R., 1992, “Introduction to environmentally conscious manufacturing.” International Journal of Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 1, 5–11.Google Scholar
  30. Yager, R. R., 1980, “On a general class of fuzzy connectives.” Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 3, 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael H. Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WindsorCanada

Personalised recommendations