Advertisement

Rehabilitation of prostate cancer

  • Cletus R. Georges
  • Kevin T. McVary
Chapter
  • 98 Downloads
Part of the Cancer Treatment and Research book series (CTAR, volume 100)

Abstract

Prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm occurring in American men. In 1995, it is projected that 200,000 men in the United States will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and approximately 40,000 men will die of this neoplasm [1]. Prostate cancer is now the second leading cause of cancer death in men after lung cancer. Of those who do not die of prostate cancer, thousands will suffer complications associated with regional extension, metastatic disease, or complications of curative therapy. It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss the management of these complications.

Keywords

Prostate Cancer Urinary Incontinence Radical Prostatectomy Neurovascular Bundle Ureteral Obstruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wingo PA, Tong T, Bolden S. 1995. Cancer statistics. CA 45:127–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carter HB, Coffey D. 1990. The prostate: an increasing medical problem. Prostate 16:39–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gittes RF. 1991 Carcinoma of the prostate. N Engl J Med 324:236–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paulson DF. 1987. Radiotherapy versus surgery for localized prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 14:675–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Walsh PC, Donker PJ. 1982. Impotence following radical prostatectomy: insights into etiology and prevention. J Urol 128:492–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walsh PC, Lepor H, Eggleston JC. 1983. Radical prostatectomy with preservation of sexual function: anatomical and pathological considerations. Prostate 4:473–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steiner MS, Morton RA, Walsh PC. 1991 Impact of anatomical radical prostatectomy on urinary continence. J Urol 145:512–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quinlan DM, Epstein JI, Carter BS, Walsh PC. 1991 Sexual function following radical prostatectomy: influence of preservation of neurovascular bundle. J Urol 145:998–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walsh PC. 1992. Radical retropubic prostatectomy. In Walsh PC, Retick AB, Stamey TA, et al. (eds), Campbell’s Textbook of Urology, 6th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 2865–2886.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Borlans RN, Walsh PC. 1992. The management of rectal injury during radical retropubic prostatectomy. J Urol 147:905–907.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cisek LJ, Walsh PC. 1993. Thromboembolic complications following radical retropubic prostatectomy: influence of external sequential pneumatic compression devises. Urology 42:406–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kopecky AA, Laskowski TZ, Scott R Jr. 1970. Radical retropubic prostatectomy in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 103:641–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lepor H, Gregerman M, Crosby R, Mostofi FK, Walsh PC. 1985. Precise localization of the autonomic nerves from the pelvic plexus to the corpora cavernosa: a detailed anatomical study of the adult male pelvis. J Urol 133:207–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Walsh PC, Epstein JI, Lowe FC. 1987. Potency following radical prostatectomy with wide unilateral excision of the neurovascular bundle. J Urol 138:823–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Catalona WJ, Basier JW. 1993. Return of erection and urinary continence following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. J Urol 150:905–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stamey TA, McNeal JE, Freiha FS, Redwine E. 1988. Morphometric and clinical studies on 68 consecutive radical prostatectomies. J Urol 139:1235–1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bahnson RR, Catalona WJ. 1988. Papaverine testing of impotent patients following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. J Urol 139:773–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Breza J, Abosief SR, Orvis BR, Lue TF, Tanagho EA. 1989. Detailed anatomy of penile neurovascular structures: surgical significance. J Urol 141:437–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim E, Blackburn D, McVary KT. 1994. Post radical prostatectomy penile blood flow: assessment with color flow Doppler ultrasound. J Urol 152:2276–2279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aboseif S, Shinohara K, Breza J, Benard F, Narayan P. 1994. Role of penile vascular injury in erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy. Br J Urol 73:75–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 22.
    Alexander RB, Maguire MG, Epstein JI, Walsh PC. 1989. Pathological stage is higher in older men with clinical stage B adenocarcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 141:880–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 23.
    Eggleston JC, Walsh PC. 1985. Radical prostatectomy with preservation of sexual function: pathological findings in the first 100 cases. J Urol 134:1146–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 24.
    Polascik TJ, Walsh PC. 1995. Radical retropubic prostatectomy: the influence of accessory pudendal arteries on the recovery of sexual function. J Urol 154:150–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 25.
    Catalona WJ, Bigg SW. 1990. Nerve sparing radical prostatectomy: evaluation of results after 250 patients. J Urol 143:538–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 26.
    Lue TF, Tanagho EA. 1987. Physiology of erection and pharmacological management of impotence. J Urol 137:829–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 27.
    Pescatori ES, Hatzichristou DG, Namburi S, Goldstein I. 1994. A positive intracavernous injection test implies normal veno-occlusive but not necessarily normal arterial function: a hemodynamic study. J Urol 151:1209–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 28.
    Lue TF, Hricak, Marich KW, Tanagho EA. 1985. Evaluation of arteriogenic impotence with intracorporal injection of papaverine and the duplex ultrasound scanner. Sem in Urol 3:43–48.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    Brock G, Nunes L, Padma-Nathan Boyd S, Lue TF. 1993. Nitric oxide synthase: a new diagnostic tool for neurogenic impotence. Urology 42:412–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 30.
    Aboseif SR, Breza J, Lue TF, Tanagho EA. 1989. Penile venous drainage in erectile dysfunction: anatomical, radiological and functional considerations. Br J Urol 64:183–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 31.
    Puyau FA, Lewis RW, Balkin P, Kaack MB, Hirsch A. 1987. Dynamic corpus cavernography: effect of papaverine injection. Radiology 164:179–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 32.
    Wespes E, Delcour C, Stuyven J, Schulman CC. 1984. Carversometry-cavernography: its role in organic impotence. Eur Urol 10:229–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 33.
    Reid K, Surridge DH, Morales A, Condra M, Harris C, Owen J, Fenemore J. 1987. Double-blind trail of yohimbine in treatment of psychogenic impotence. Lancet 2(8556): 421–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 34.
    Virag R, Frydman D, Legman M, Virag H. 1984. Intracavernous injection of papaverine as a diagnostic and therapeutic method in erectile failure. Angiology 35:79–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 35.
    Goldstein I, Payton T, Padma-Nathan H. 1988. Therapeutic roles of intracavernosal papaverine. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 11:237–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 36.
    Levine SB, Althof SE, Turner LA, Risen CB, Bodner DR, Kursh ED, Resnick MI. 1989. Side effects of self administration of intracavernous papaverine and phentolamine for the treatment of impotence. J Urol 141:54–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 37.
    Padma-Nathan H, Bennett A, Gesundheit N, et al. 1995. Treatment of erectile dysfunction by the medicated urethral system for erection (MUSE) (abstract). J Urol 153:472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 38.
    Nadig PW, Ware JC, Blumoff R. 1986. Non-invasive device to produce and maintain an erection-like state. Urology 27:126–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 39.
    Witherington R. 1988. Suction device therapy in the management of erectile impotence. Urol Clin North Am 15:123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 40.
    Witherington R. 1991 Mechanical devices for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Am Fam Physician 43:1611–1620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 41.
    NIH Consensus Development Panel on Impotence. 1993. Impotence. JAMA 270:83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 42.
    Gosling JA, Dixon JS, Critchley HO, Thompson SA. 1981 A comparative study of the human external sphincter and periurethral levator ani muscles. Br J Urol 53:35–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 43.
    Donker PJ, Dröes PM, Van Ulden BM. 1976. Anatomy of the musculature and innervation of the bladder and the urethra. In Williams DI, Chisholm GD (eds), Scientific Foundation of Urology, vol. 2. London: William Heinemann Medical Books, 32–39.Google Scholar
  43. 44.
    Gosling JA, Dixon JS. 1979. Light and electron microscopic observation on human external urethral sphincter (abstract). J Anat 129:216.Google Scholar
  44. 45.
    Rudy DC, Woodside JR, Crawford ED. 1984. Urodynamic evaluation of incontinence in patient undergoing modified Campbell radical prostatectomy: a prospective study. J Urol 132:708–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 46.
    Walsh PC, Quinlan DM, Morton RA, Steiner MS. 1990. Radical retropubic prostatectomy: improved anastomosis and urinary continence. Urol Clin North Am 17:679–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 47.
    Myers RP. 1991 Male urethral sphincteric anatomy and radical prostatectomy. Urol Clin North Am 18:211–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 48.
    Abdel-Azim MS, Sullivan MP, Yalla SV. 1990. Urodynamics of post-radical prostatectomy incontinence (abstract). J Urol 143:359A.Google Scholar
  48. 49.
    Hutch JA, Fisher R. 1963. Continence after radical prostatectomy. Br J Urol 40:62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 50.
    Presti JC, Schmidt RA, Narayan PA, Carroll PR, Tanagho EA. 1990. Pathophysiology of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy. J Urol 143:975–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 51.
    O’Donnell PD, Finan BF. 1989. Continence following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy. J Urol 142:1227–1228.Google Scholar
  51. 52.
    Koyanagi T. 1980. Studies on the sphincteric system located distally in the urethra: the external urethral sphincter revisited. J Urol 124:400–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 53.
    Ramon J, Leanderi P, Rossignol G, Gautier JR. 1993. Urinary continence following radical retropubic prostatectomy. Br J Urol 71:47–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 54.
    Leach GE, Yip C, Donovan BJ. 1987. Post-prostatectomy incontinence: the influence of bladder dysfunction. J Urol 138:574–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 55.
    Klein EA. 1993. Modified apical dissection for early continence after radical prostatectomy. Prostate 22:217–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 56.
    Tanagho EA. 1981 Bladder neck reconstruction for total urinary incontinence: 10 years of experience. J Urol 125:321–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 57.
    Meaglia JP, Joseph JC, Chang M, Schmidt JD. 1990. Post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence: response to behavioral training. J Urol 144:674–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 58.
    Gundian JC, Barrett DM, Parulkar BG. 1989. Mayo Clinic experience with use of the AMS 800 artificial urinary sphincter for urinary incontinence following radical prostatectomy. J Urol 142:1459–1461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 59.
    Perez LM, Webster JD. 1992. Successful outcome of artificial urinary sphincters in men with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence despite adverse implantation features. J Urol 148:1166–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 60.
    Stamey TA. 1994. Perineal compression of the corpus spongiosum of the bulbar urethra: an operation for post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence. J Urol 151(5) A1049.Google Scholar
  60. 61.
    Schaeffer A. 1995. Male Stamey procedure for post radical prostatectomy incontinence. Presented at the Clinical Problems in Urology Seminar, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL, October 7.Google Scholar
  61. 62.
    Mizuo T, Tanizawa A, Yamada A, Oshima H. 1992. Sling operation for male stress incontinence by utilizing modified Stamey technique. Urology 34:211–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 63.
    Kaufman M, Lockhart JL, Silverstein MY, Politano VA. 1984. Transurethral polytetra-fluoroethylene injection for post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. J Urol 132:463–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 64.
    Politano VA. 1992. Transurethral polytetrafluoroethylene injection for post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Br J Urol 69:26–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 65.
    Politano VA. 1982. Periurethral polytetrafluoroethylene injection for urinary incontinence. J Urol 127:439–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 66.
    Malizia AA, Reiman HM, Myers RP, Sande JR, Barham SS, Benson RC, Dewanjee MK, Utz WJ. 1984. Migration and granulomatous reaction after periurethral injection of polytef (Teflon). JAMA 251:3277–3281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 67.
    Gill HS, Payne CK. 1995. Experience with collagen injection therapy in men with urinary incontinence (abstract). J Urol 153:276A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 68.
    Gonzalez de Garibay AS, Castillo Jimeno JM, Villaneiva PI, Figuerido GE, Vigata LMJ, Sebastian BJL. 1991 Treatment of urinary stress incontinence using paraurethral injection of autologous fat. Arch Esp Urol 44:595–600.Google Scholar
  68. 69.
    Huggins C, Steven RE, Hodges CV. 1941 Studies on Prostatic Cancer II: The effects of castration on advance cancer of prostate gland. Arch Surg 43:202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 70.
    Fleischmann JD, Catalona WJ. 1985. Endocrine therapy for bladder outlet obstruction from carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 134:498–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 71.
    Carpentier PJ, Schroder FH. 1984. Transrectal ultrasonography in the follow-up of prostatic carrcinoma patients: a new prognostic parameter? J Urol 131:903–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 72.
    Mazur AW, Thompson IM. 1991 Efficacy and morbidity of ‘channel’ TURP Urology 38:526–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 73.
    Michigan S, Catalona WJ. 1977. Ureteral obstruction from prostatic carcinoma: response to endocrine and radiation therapy. J Urol 118:733–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 74.
    Kihl B, Bratt CG. 1981 Reimplantation of the ureter in prostatic carcinoma associated with bilateral ureteral obstruction. Br J Urol 53:349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 75.
    Ortlip SA, Fraley EE. 1982. Indications for palliative urinary diversion in patients with cancer. Urol Clin North Am 9:79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 76.
    Guidos B. 1988. Preparing the patients for home care of the percutaneous nephrostomy tube. J Enterostomal Ther 15:187–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 77.
    Rubin H, Lome LG, Presman D. 1974. Neurological manifestation of metastatic prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 111:799–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 78.
    Flynn DF, Shipley WH. 1991 Management of spinal cord compression secondary to metastatic prostatic carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 18:145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 79.
    Sundaresan N, Galicich JH, Lane JM, Bains MS, McCormack P. 1985. Treatment of neoplastic epidural cord compression by vertebral body resection and stabilization. J Neurosurg 63:676–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 80.
    McCallum KA, Reading C. 1989. Hot flushes are induced by thermogenic stimuli. Br J Urol 64:507–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 81.
    Charig CR, Rundle JS. 1989. Flushing: long term side effects of orchiectomy in treatment of prostatic carcinoma. Urology 33:175–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 82.
    Radlmaier A, Bormacher K, Neumann F. 1990. Hot flushes: mechanism and prevention. Prog Clin Biol Res 359:131–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 83.
    Eaton AC, McGuire N. 1983. Cyproterone acetate in treatment of post orchidectomy hot flushes: double blind cross over trial. Lancet 2(8363): 1336–1337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 84.
    Laufer LR, Erlik Y, Meldrum DR, Judd HL. 1982. Effect of Clonidine on hot flushes in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 60:583–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 85.
    Shipley WU, Zietman AL, Hanks GE, Coen JJ. 1994. Treatment sequelae following external beam radiation for prostate cancer: a review with an update in patients with stage T1 and T2 tumor. J Urol 152:1799–1805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 86.
    Bagshaw MA, Cox RS, Ray GR. 1988. Status of radiation treatment of prostatic cancer at Stanford University. Natl Cancer Inst Monog 7:47–60.Google Scholar
  86. 87.
    Vijayakumar S, Awan A, Karrison T, Culbert H, Chan S, Kolker J, Low N, Halpern H, Rubin S, Chen GT. 1993. Acute toxicity during external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: comparison of different techniques. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 25:359–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 88.
    Zinreich ES, Derogatis LR, Herpst J, et al. 1990. Pre and post treatment evaluation of sexual function in patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19:729–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 89.
    Goldstein I, Feldman MI, Ceclose PJ, Deckers PJ, Babayan RK, Krane RJ. 1984. Radiation associated impotence. JAMA 251:903–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 90.
    Pilepich MV, Krall J, George FW, Ashell SO, Plenk HO, Stetz J, Zinninger M, Walz BJ. 1984. Treatment related morbidity in phase III RTOG studies of extended field irradiation for cancer of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 10:1861–1867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 91.
    Mohiuddin J, Prentice HG, Schey S, Blacklock H, Dandona P. 1984. Treatment of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis with prostaglandin E2. Ann Intern Med 101:142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 92.
    Shurafa M, Shumaker E, Cronin S. 1987. Prostaglandin F2 — alpha bladder irrigation for control of intractable cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis. J Urol 137:1230–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 93.
    Liu YK, Harty JI, Steinbock GS, Holt HA Jr, Goldstein DH, Amin M. 1990. Treatment of radiation or cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis using conjugated estrogen. J Urol 144:41–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cletus R. Georges
  • Kevin T. McVary

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations