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THE ICD presents a significant challenge to the battery designer. The battery must be capable of operating at low current drains (for monitoring) for long periods of time, and then be capable of providing high-current pulses (for capacitor charging) when the patient requires defibrillation. As discussed in the Appendix, a typical requirement for monitoring is the delivery of 10 μA (microamperes) for 5 years. A typical requirement for capacitor charging is that the battery provide a current in excess of 2 A, at voltages above 2 V, for periods as long as 10 s. The cell must therefore exhibit high energy density, high current-delivery capability, and low self-discharge (loss of energy due to internal leakages). It must also meet the high standards of safety and reliability required of all implantable power sources. In addition, it is desirable that the battery’s discharge curve provide a state of charge indication which can signal the need for device replacement.
KeywordsOpen Circuit Voltage Vanadium Oxide Charge Time Implantable Defibrillator Loaded Voltage
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