Markedness pp 271-289 | Cite as

The Markedness Differential Hypothesis: Implications for Vietnamese Speakers of English

  • Bronwen Benson


Eckman (1977:315) proposes a revision of the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (Lado 1957) which incorporates the notion of typological markedness. His proposed revision, the Markedness Differential Hypothesis (MDH), is stated below.


Target Language Consonant Cluster Markedness Relation Marked Cluster Voiceless Stop 
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  1. Eckman, Fred R. 1977. Markedness and the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis. Language Learning. 27, 2 315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1965. Some generalizations concerning initial and final consonant sequences. Linguistics. 18, 5–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Greenberg, Joseph H. 1963. Memorandum concerning language universal. Universals of Language. Edited by J.H. Greenberg. 2nd edition, 1966. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press. xxv. [Reprinted in 1965 ]Google Scholar
  4. Lado, R. 1957. Linguistics Across Cultures. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar

Vietnamese Reference Grammars

  1. Dauphin, Antoine. 1977. Cours de Vietnamien. Mayenne, France: Joseph Floch Maitre-Impreiteur.Google Scholar
  2. Nguyen-Dang-Liem. 1970. Vietnamese Pronunciation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  3. Thompson, Laurance C. 1955. A Vietnamese Grammar. Seattle: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bronwen Benson
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaUSA

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