Immunity to Salmonella Infections

  • Toby K. Eisenstein
  • Duan Huang
  • Martin G. Schwacha
Part of the Infectious Agents and Pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


Immunity to typhoid fever has been of interest since the turn of the century, principally because of a desire to develop optimal vaccines for use by military personnel. The British were the first to try vaccination under the direction of Wright and Semple in 1897.(1) The United States Army adopted compulsory vaccination in 1911, using the British method, which involved three injections of heat-killed organisms, spaced 1 week apart.(2) The results were a stunning success, with the number of cases falling from over 350/100,000 to less than 25/100,000 once compulsory vaccination was instituted.(2) At that time the causative organism was designated as Eberthella typhosa, the name being changed later to Salmonella typhosa, and finally to Salmonella typhi. Initially, the major antigens on the organism were determined to be the O (somatic antigens) and the H antigens (flagellar). In 1934 the Vi capsular antigen was discovered by Felix and Pitt(3) and shown to be a major virulence factor of S. typhi. Considerable research was invested in trying to assess the relative contribution of the O and Vi antigens to the protection conferred by vaccination. Since the Vi antigen was preserved better by alcohol than by heat, alcohol-preserved whole-cell vaccines were also tested. In 1953 Landy introduced acetone-killed and dried cells. These various whole killed-cell formulations were compared in extensive double-blind field trials carried out in the late 1950s and 1960s in British Guyana, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Russia under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO).(5,6)


Cellular Immunity Typhoid Fever Oral Vaccine Protective Capacity Innate Resistance 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toby K. Eisenstein
    • 1
  • Duan Huang
    • 1
  • Martin G. Schwacha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of MedicineTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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