Phase Behavior of Ternary Systems H2O — Oil — Amphiphile as Determined by the Interplay of the Oil — Amphiphile Gap and the H2O — Amphiphile Loop

  • M. Kahlweit
  • R. Strey
  • J. Jen
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 41)


When studying multicomponent mixtures of the type H2O — oil — nonionic amphiphile one should distinguish between their macroscopic equilibrium behavior and their microstructure. The detailed knowledge of their macroscopic properties, i.e. of their phase behavior as function of temperature (and pressure, if necessary), is a prerequisite for performing meaningful experiments in order to clarify their microstructure. The situation may be compared with that of sailing a ship across the unknown waters. It may then happen that one observes a high surf in some limited area which may incline one to develop some exotic theory about the origin of that surf, whereas a detailed map may reveal the surf to be caused by a reef below the ocean surface. A similar situation may occur when performing, e.g., scattering experiments in homogeneous multicomponent liquid solutions without knowing the location of the critical lines and their end points. It is for this reason that we have emphasized the importance of studies of the phase behavior of such systems. In a recently published review article[1] we have shown that the phase behavior of ternary and quaternary systems with either a lyotropic salt (NaCl) or a ionic amphiphile (SDS) as fourth component can be readily understood on the basis of the theory of phase diagrams as developed at the beginning of this century without assuming any particular microstructure of the solutions.


Phase Behavior Carbon Number Critical Line Mutual Solubility Oxyethylene Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Kahlwiet, R. Strey, Angew.Chem.(Engl.Ed). 24: 654 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Kahlweit, R. Strey, P. Firman, J.Phys.Chem., 90: 671 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Prince, “Alloy Phase Equilibria,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 119 ff. (1966).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See e.g., R. E. Goldstein, J.Chem.Phys., 84:3367 (1986); and G. M. Thurston, D. Blankschtein, M R. Fisch, G. B. Benedek, J.Chem.Phys. 84: 4558 (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Firman, D, Hasse, J. Jen., M. Kahlweit, R. Strey, Langmuir 1: 718 (1985).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. A. Guggenheim, “Mixtures,” Clarendon Press, Oxford 1952, p. 229.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    For a discussion of the temperature dependence of hydrogen bonding see e.g.: J. C. Lang, in: “Physics of Amphiphiles: Micelles, Vesicles and Microemulsions,” V. Degiorgio, and M. Corti, eds., North-Holland, Amsterdam, p. 364 ff. (1985).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Widow, J.Phys.Chem., 77: 2196 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. B. Griffiths, B. Widom, Phys.Rev. A8: 2173 (1973).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Such sections through three-phase bodies were first published by K. Shinoda, and H. J. Takeda, Colloid Interface Sci., 32: 642 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    K. Shinoda, H. Arai, J.Phys.Chem., 68: 3485 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Kahlweit
    • 1
  • R. Strey
    • 1
  • J. Jen
    • 1
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut fuer biophysikalische ChemiGoettingenGermany

Personalised recommendations