Advertisement

Network Aspects and Deployment in WSNs

  • Ana-Belén García-HernandoEmail author
  • José-Fernán Martínez-Ortega
  • Juan-Manuel López-Navarro
  • Aggeliki Prayati
  • Luis Redondo-López
Chapter
  • 697 Downloads
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have been found to be very useful for many military and civil applications such as disaster management, surveillance of battle fields, and security. In many of these environments, the sensor nodes are strongly limited in terms of energy since their batteries usually cannot be recharged. Thus, designing energy-efficient algorithms has become an important factor to lengthen the lifetime of WSNs. Efficient network deployment and management is crucial to set an acceptable quality level in the network operation and to preserve as much of the node energy as possible. Correct energy management assures the desired performance level for data transmissions while lengthening the lifetime of the network. Energy restrictions combined with wide-scale deployments make implementing energy-saving methods necessary in most protocols, including the network and MAC layers. Energy-efficient routing can optimize the lifetime of the network by selecting paths that expend less energy, whereas collision suppression and decreasing energy consumption in the receiver must be the goals of the different Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanisms. Since energy considerations have dominated most of the investigations about WSN network operation and deployment, quality-of-service (QoS) issues such as latency, throughput, delay, or jitter have not been treated with great detail until now, topics that have been identified as interesting open issues for further research.

Keywords

Sensor Network Sensor Node Wireless Sensor Network Packet Loss Medium Access Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Agah A,Basu K,Das SK (2006)Security enforcement in wireless sensor networks: A framework based on non-cooperative games.Pervas Mobile Comp2(2):137--58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akan ÖB,Akyildiz IF (2005)Event-to-sink reliable transport in wireless sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 13(5):1003--16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akkaya K, Younis M (2003) An energy-aware QoS routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. InProceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, pp. 710--715.Google Scholar
  4. Akyildiz IF, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, et al. (2002)A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Commun Mag 40(8):102--14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Karaki JN, Kamal AE (2004) A taxonomy of routing techniques in wireless sensor networks. In Ilyas M, Mahgoub I (Eds) Handbook of Sensor Networks: Compact Wireless and Wired Sensing Systems, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  6. Buettner M, Yee G, Anderson E, et al. (2006) X-MAC: A short preamble MAC protocol for duty-cycled wireless sensor networks. University of Colorado at Boulder, Technical Report CU-CS-1008-06.Google Scholar
  7. Bulusu N, Heidemann J, Estrin D (2000) GPS-less low-cost outdoor localization for very small devices. IEEE Pers Commun 7(5):28--34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Capkun S, Hamdi M, Hubaux JP (2001) GPS-free positioning in mobile ad-hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 34rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Google Scholar
  9. Chang JH, Tassiulas L (2004) Maximum lifetime routing in wireless sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 12(4):609--19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen JC, Sivalingam KM, Agrawal P, et al. (1998) A comparison of MAC protocols for wireless local networks based on battery power consumption. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '98),Vol. 1, pp. 150--157.Google Scholar
  11. Chen B, Jamieson K, Balakrishnan H, et al. (2002) SPAN: An energy-efficient coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless networks. Wirel Netw 8(5):481--94zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deng J, Han R, Mishra S (2006) INSENS: Intrusion-tolerant routing for wireless sensor networks. Comp Commun 29(2):216--30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dulman S, Nieberg T, Wu J, et al. (2003) Trade-off between traffic overhead and reliability in multipath routing for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC 2003), Vol. 3, pp. 1918--1922.Google Scholar
  14. Ee CT, Bajcsy R (2004) Congestion control and fairness for many-to-one routing in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04). pp. 148--161.Google Scholar
  15. Felemban E, Lee CG, Ekici E, et al. (2005) Probabilistic QoS guarantee in reliability and timeliness domains in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM2005), Vol. 4, pp. 2646--2657.Google Scholar
  16. Goldsmith AJ, Wicker SB (2002) Design challenges for energy-constrained ad hoc wireless networks. IEEE Wirel Commun 9(4):8--27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haenggi M (2006) Opportunities and challenges in wireless sensor networks. In Smart Dust: Sensor Network Applications, Architecture and Design, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  18. He L, Kuo GS (2006) A novel time synchronization scheme in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 63rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2006-Spring), pp. 568--572.Google Scholar
  19. He T, Stankovic JA, Lu C, et al. (2003) SPEED: A stateless protocol for real-time communication in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp. 46--55.Google Scholar
  20. Heinzelman WB (2000) Application-specific protocol architectures for wireless networks. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  21. Heinzelman WR, Kulik J, Balakrishnan H (1999) Adaptive protocols for information dissemination in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom '99), pp. 174--185.Google Scholar
  22. Heinzelman WR, Chandrakasan A, Balakrishnan H (2000) Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Google Scholar
  23. Hightower J, Borriello G (2001) A survey and taxonomy of location systems for ubiquitous computing. University of Washington, Technical Report UW-CSE 01-08-03.Google Scholar
  24. Hull B, Jamieson K, Balakrishnan H (2004) Mitigating congestion in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), pp. 134--147.Google Scholar
  25. Intanagonwiwat C, Govindan R, Estrin D (2000) Directed diffusion: A scalable and robust communication paradigm for sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom '00), pp. 56--67.Google Scholar
  26. Ju JH, Li VOK (1999) TDMA scheduling design of multihop packet radio networks based on Latin squares. In Proceedings of the 18th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '99), Vol. 1, pp. 187--193.Google Scholar
  27. Karl H, Willig A (2005) Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.,New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khalil I, Bagchi S, Shroff N (2007) Analysis and evaluation of Secos, a protocol for energy efficient and secure communication in sensor networks. Ad Hoc Netw 5(3):360--91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Koubaa A, Alves M, Tovar E (2006) Proceedings of the 18th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp. 183--192.Google Scholar
  30. Kulik J, Heinzelman W, Balakrishnan H (2002) Negotiation-based protocols for disseminating information in wireless sensor networks. Wirel Netw 8(2/3):169--85.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu Y, Ngan H, Ni LM (2006) Power-aware node deployment in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, andTrustworthy Computing, pp. 128--135.Google Scholar
  32. Lu S, Bharghavan V, Srikant R (1999) Fair scheduling in wireless packet networks. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 7(4):473--89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Luo H, Lu S, Bharghavan V (2000) A new model for packet scheduling in multihop wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 6th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom '00), pp. 76--86.Google Scholar
  34. Manjeshwar A, Agrawal DP (2001) TEEN: A routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, pp. 2009--2015.Google Scholar
  35. Manjeshwar A, Agrawal DP (2002) APTEEN: A hybrid protocol for efficient routing and comprehensive information retrieval in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium. pp. 195--202.Google Scholar
  36. Martínez JF, García AB, Corredor I, et al. (2007a) Trade-off between performance and energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. Lect Notes Comp Sci 4725:264--71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Martínez JF, García AB, Corredor I, et al. (2007b) Modelling QoS for wireless sensor networks. IFIP 248:143--54.Google Scholar
  38. Martínez JF, García AB, Corredor I, et al. (2008) Guaranteeing QoS in wireless sensor networks. In Wireless Quality-of-Service: Techniques, Standards and Applications, Auerbach, US.Google Scholar
  39. Polastre J, Hill J, Culler D (2004) Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2 nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04),pp. 95--107.Google Scholar
  40. Pottie G, Kaiser W (2005) Principles of Embedded Networked Systems Design. Cambridge University Press,New York.Google Scholar
  41. Rajendran V, Obraczka K, Garcia-Luna-Aceves JJ (2003) Energy-efficient collision-free medium access control for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 181--192.Google Scholar
  42. Rhee I, Warrier A, Aia M, et al. (2005) Z-MAC: A hybrid MAC for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '05), pp. 90--101.Google Scholar
  43. Rodoplu V, Meng TH (1999) Minimum energy mobile wireless networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 17(8):1333--44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Royer EM, Toh CK (1999) A review of current routing protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. IEEE Pers Commun 6(2):46--55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sohrabi K, Pottie GJ (1999) Performance of a novel self-organization protocol for wireless ad-hoc sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE 50th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 1999), Vol. 2, pp. 1222--1226.Google Scholar
  46. Sohrabi K, Gao J, Ailawadhi V, et al. (2000) Protocols for self-organization of a wireless sensor network. IEEE Pers Commun 7(5):16--27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stojmenovic I, Lin X (1999) GEDIR: Loop-free location-based routing in wireless networks. In Proceedings of IASTED—International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems, pp. 1025--1028.Google Scholar
  48. Tilak S, Abu-Ghazaleh NB, Heinzelman W (2002)A taxonomy of wireless micro-sensor network models. SIGMOBILE Mobile Comp Commun Rev 6(2):28--36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van Der Schaar M, Sai Shankar N (2005) Cross-layer wireless multimedia transmission: Challenges, principles, and new paradigms. IEEE WirelCommun 12(4):50--8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Veres A, Campbell AT, Barry M, et al. (2001) Supporting service differentiation in wireless packet networks using distributed control. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 19(10):2081--93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wan CY, Eisenman SB, Campbell AT (2003) CODA: Congestion detection and avoidance in sensor networks. InProceedings of the 1st International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), pp. 266--279.Google Scholar
  52. Wang C, Sohraby K, Lawrence V, et al. (2006) Priority-based congestion control in wireless sensor networks. InProceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous, and Trustworthy Computing, pp. 22--31.Google Scholar
  53. Watteyne T, Auge-Blum I (2005) Proposition of a hard real-time MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. InProceedings of the 13th IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, pp. 533--536.Google Scholar
  54. Woesner H, Ebert JP, Schlager M, et al. (1998) Power-saving mechanisms in emerging standards for wireless LANs: The MAC level perspective. IEEE Pers Commun 5(3):40--8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wong KD (2004) Physical layer considerations for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control,Vol. 2, pp. 1201--1206.Google Scholar
  56. Xu S, Saadawi T (2001) Does the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol work well in multihop wireless ad hoc networks? IEEE Commun Mag 39(6):130--7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ye W, Heidemann J, Estrin D (2002) An energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 21st Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM 2002), Vol. 3, pp. 1567--1576.Google Scholar
  58. Ye W, Heidemann J, Estrin D (2004) Medium access control with coordinated adaptive sleeping for wireless sensor networks. IEEE/ACM Trans Netw 12(3):493--506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yu Y, Govindan R, Estrin D (2001) Geographical and energy aware routing: A recursive data dissemination protocol for wireless sensor networks. UCLA, Technical Report, UCLA/CSD-TR-01-0023.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana-Belén García-Hernando
    • 1
    Email author
  • José-Fernán Martínez-Ortega
    • 1
  • Juan-Manuel López-Navarro
    • 1
  • Aggeliki Prayati
    • 2
  • Luis Redondo-López
    • 3
  1. 1.University of MadridSpain
  2. 2.ATHENA / I.S.I. Research and Innovation Center in Information, Communication, and Knowledge TechnologiesGreece
  3. 3.Métodos y Tecnología de Sistemas y Procesos (MTP)MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations